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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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Peter Wiernik,

Journalist, New York City.

Contributions:
MOGULESKO, SIGMUND (SELIG) – American comedian; born in Kaloraush, Bessarabia, Dec. 16, 1858; now residing in New York. He possessed a fine voice from early youth, and was the favorite "meshorer" or choir-singer with several well-known ḥazzanim. He went to...
MONATSSCHRIFT FÜR DIE GESCHICHTE UND WISSENSCHAFT DES JUDENTHUMS – The oldest and most important monthly devoted to the science of Judaism. It was founded by Zacharias Frankel in Dresden in the year 1851, in continuation of his "Zeitschrift für die Religiösen Interessen des Judenthums," which...
MOSES ISAAC OF KELMY – Russian preacher, known as the "Kelmer maggid"; born in Slonim, government of Grodno, 1828; died in Lida, government of Wilna, Nov. 9, 1899. At the age of ten he lost his father, and he was brought up by his maternal...
MUSARNIKES – Name colloquially applied in Russia to the followers of R. Israel Lipkin (Salanter) in the study of religio-ethical works and in the practise of severely strict morality. Although he was probably the keenest-minded pilpulist of...
NAHUM B. UZZIEL KAPLAN (Reb Nahum Grodner) – Preacher and philanthropist; born 1811; died at Grodno Oct. 25, 1879. Though he was a great Talmudist, he preferred to hold the humble position of "shammash" (sexton) in the synagogue Ḥebrah Shas and to pass his life in poverty....
NOVEIRA, MENAHEM – Italian rabbi of Verona and poet of the eighteenth century. He was a grandson of Hezekiah Mordecai Basan. His three responsa are appended to his grandfather's "Pene Yiẓḥaḳ," which he published in Mantua in 1744. He was also the...
NOVY ISRAEL – Name of a Jewish reformed religious party or sect, with tendencies toward Christianity, which arose in Odessa at the end of 1881, and which was originated by Jacob Prelooker, a Russian Jewish school-teacher there. Prelooker's...
OSTROGORSKI, MOISEI YAKOVLEVICH – Russian political economist and sociologist; born in the year 1854. He is the son of a Jewish teacher at Grodno (see "Ha-Shaḥar," v. 273). After studying law in the University of St. Petersburg, he held for some time a...
PADUA, JACOB MEïR – Russian rabbi; born in Brest-Litovsk; died there Dec. 12, 1854. He was a descendant of the Katzenellenbogen family which had been prominent in Brest for more than three centuries. His father, Ḥayyim (d. 1837), and his...
PERGAMENTER, SOLOMON B. SHALOM, OF BRÜNN – Austrian Hebraist and poet of the earlier part of the nineteenth century. He was the author of "Yesode ha-Lashon," in Judæo-German, for self-instruction in Hebrew (Vienna, 1813; 2d, improved, ed. ib. 1832), and of several Hebrew...
PERLHEFTER (EYBESCHÜTZ), ISSACHAR BÄR B. JUDAH LÖB B. MOSES – Bohemian rabbi and author; died after Sept. 9, 1701. He was a native of Prague and a scion of the Eibenschütz or Eybeschütz family; but in accordance witha custom common in those days he adopted the family name of his wife,...
PESANTE (PIZANTE), MOSES B. ḤAYYIM B. SHEM-ṬOB – Turkish commentator of the second half of the sixteenth century. He was the author of "Yesha' Elohim," a commentary on the "Hosha'not" and on some Biblical texts and sayings (Constantinople, 1567; 2d ed. Salonica, 1569). A part...
PINNER, EPHRAIM MOSES B. ALEX-ANDER SÜSSKIND – German Talmudist and archeologist; born in Pinne about 1800; died in Berlin 1880. His first work, bearing the pretentious title of "Ḳiẓẓur Talmud Yerushalmi we-Talmud Babli" = "Compendium of the Jerusalem Talmud and of the...
PINSKER, DOB BÄR B. NATHAN – Polish Talmudist of the eighteenth century. He was a descendant of Nathan Spira of Cracow, and the author of the Talmudical work "Neṭa'Sha'ashu'im" (Zolkiev, 1748), which contains novellæ on the section Nashim of the Babylonian...
PLOCK (PLOTZK) – Government in Russian Poland, with a Jewish population (1897) of 50,473 (in a total population of 553,094), which is the smallest Jewish population of any government in the Pale of Settlement.The most important of the district...
PLUNGIAN – Old town in the government of Kovno, district of Telshi, Russia. Among the earlier rabbis of Plungian were Jacob b. Ẓebi, a resident of Grodno, who gave his approbation to his younger brother's work, "Ohole Yehudah" (Jessnitz,...
POLONNOYE – Town in the district of Novograd, Volhynia, Russia. It was a fortified place in the middle of the seventeenth century, when about 12,000 Jews found there a refuge from the neighboring towns at the time of the Cossacks'...
POLOTSK (POLOTZK) – District town in the government of Vitebsk, Russia. The first mention of its Jewish community occurs in 1551, when, at the Polish Diet held at Wilna, Polotsk is expressly named in a list of towns whose Jews were to be exempt...
POLTAVA – Government of Little Russia, which came under Russian domination in 1764, and whose present organization was established in 1802. It has a Jewish population of 111,417, the total population being 2,780,427 (census of 1897). See...
PONIEWICZ (PONEVYEZH) – District city in the government of Kovno, Russia. In 1780 CountNikolai Tyszkiewicz by cutting down a forest that lay between New and Old Poniewicz: helped materially in enlarging the city to its present size and in founding the...
POTOCKI (POTOTZKI), COUNT VALENTINE (ABRAHAM B. ABRAHAM) – Polish nobleman and convert to Judaism; burned at the stake at Wilna May 24, 1749. There are several versions of the remarkable story of this martyr, whose memory is still revered among the Jews of Russia as that of the Ger...
PREMSLA, SHABBETHAI – Galician grammarian and scribe of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries; lived at Przemysl. He was the author of a commentary (Lublin, 1622) on Moses Ḳimḥi's grammatical work, "Sefer Mahalak"; in it he defends the author...
PRERAU, BENJAMIN WOLF – Moravian Hebraist; lived at Prerau in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. He published Bedersi's "Baḳḳashat ha-Memin," to which he added a German translation, a Hebrew commentary, and an introduction in which each word, as...
PROSKUROV – Russian town, in the government of Podolia. The Jewish community there has one large and eight smaller synagogues, and a Talmud Torah built by the late Ḥayyim Masel in memoryof his father, Phinehas. The expenses of the Talmud...
PRUZHANY – Russian town in the government of Grodno. It had a Jewish community at the end of the sixteenth century, when Joel Sirkes held his first rabbinate there. The community is first mentioned in Russian documents in 1583 ("Regesty i...