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S. Kahn,

Rabbi, Nîmes, France.

Contributions:
HARARI, JUDAH (ARYEH) – Liturgical poet; lived at Montpellier in the second half of the thirteenth century. He is highly praised by Abraham Bedersi in the poem entitled "Ḥereb ha-Mithappeket." Several of his piyyuṭim have been preserved in the ritual...
ISAAC BEN JOSEPH OF CORBEIL – French ritualist; flourished in the second half of the thirteenth century. He was the son-in-law of R. Jehiel ben Joseph of Paris, whose school he attended, and the pupil of the "Great Men of Evreux," notably of Samuel, whom he...
JACOB OF CORBEIL – French tosafist of the twelfth century. He was the brother of Judah of Corbeil, author of tosafot to various treatises of the Talmud. He is sometimes confounded with Jacob ha-Levi, "the Pious," of Marvège or Marvéjols (Lozère,...
JACOB BEN DAVID PROVENÇAL – French Talmudist of the fifteenth century; not to be confounded with the astronomer Jacob ben David ben Yom-Ṭob Po'el, called "Sen Bonet Bongoron (or Bonjorn) of Perpignan" (14th cent.). Jacob lived at Marseilles, where he was...
JACOB NAZIR – French exegete; flourished in the second half of the twelfth century; one of the five sons of Meshullam ben Jacob of Lunel. "Jacob of Lunel" would accordingly be only another designation for "Jacob Nazir." Jacob Nazir wrote...
JACOB OF PONT SAINT-MAXENCE – French tax-farmer of the fourteenth century. With Manecier of Vesoul and his brother Vivant he was appointed (1360) by Charles V., King of France, to collect the taxes imposed upon the Jews, retaining two florins out of the...
JOINVILLE – French town in the department of Haute-Marne; in the Tosafot occur , and other variants (Yoma 81; 'Er. 24; Ber. 8; Bek.32; etc.). The counts of Champagne drew abundant revenue from the Jews of Joinville, who were practically...
JONATHAN BEN DAVID HA-KOHEN OF LUNEL – French philosopher; flourished in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. He defended Maimonides against the severe attacks of Abraham ben David of Posquières (RABaD), and at Jonathan's instance Maimonides sent to Lunel his "Moreh...
JOSEPH OF CHARTRES – French elegiac poet; born in the second half of the twelfth century (Zunz ["Literaturgesch." p. 470] says that he flourished about 1200-10); brother-in-law of Joseph b. Nathan of Etampes, and great-uncle of the author of "Joseph...
JOSEPH (MAESTRO) DE NOVES – French physician of Avignon who lived in the middle of the fifteenth century, and was highly esteemed throughout the south of France (Joseph Colon, Responsa, No. 181). During the first part of the seventeenthcentury a rabbi of...
JOSEPH SAMUEL BEN ABRAHAM BEN JOSEPH BEN ABRAHAM BARUCH BEN NERIAH – French rabbi; born at Aix, Provence; flourished at Avignon toward the end of the thirteenth century. Like his father, Abraham ben Joseph of Aix, he was an adherent of Abba Mari of Lunel. During the religious controversy of...
JUDAH BEN MOSES OF ARLES – A scholar of the second half of the eleventh century who enjoyed a great reputation and authority not only in France, but throughout the Rhine districts. One of Rashi's contemporaries, Nathan b. Makir of Mayence, mentions him as...
JUDAH BEN NATHANAEL – French liturgical poet; lived at Beaucaire in the first quarter of the thirteenth century. Al-Ḥarizi, who became acquainted with him about 1211, praises him highly. Judah had five sons: Samuel, Ezra, Isaac, Isaiah, and...
LODÈVE – Small town in the department of Hèrault, France. A Jewish community was founded here as early as the fifth century. It was under the jurisdiction of the bishop, to whom it paid an annual tax. In 1095 Bishop Bernard, in...
LUNEL – Chief town of the department of Hérault, France; at times it is called and (see Zerahiah Gerundi, preface to "Ma'or," and I. de Lattes, "Sha'are Ẓiyyon," p. 75). The Jewish community here is an ancient one; important in the...
MANOAH B. JACOB – French Talmudist; lived at Lunel in the second half of the thirteenth century. He is sometimes quoted under the abbreviation (="R. Manoah"; Halberstam MSS., No. 345). Manoah often cites decisions in the name of his father. After...
MARSEILLES – Seaport of southern France with about 5,000 Jews in a population (1896) of 420,300. It had a Jewish colony as early as the fifth century, and in 567 a number of exiles from Clermont, Auvergne, sought refuge there from the...
MARTINIQUE – Island in the West Indies, now constituting a French colony. In the beginning of the seventeenth century a number of Dutch Jews settled at Martinique and in the neighboring islands, and were in very prosperous circumstances when...
MATTITHIAH B. ISAAC OF CHINON – French scholar of the end of the thirteenth century. He was a pupil of R. Perez of Corbeil and a contemporary of Mordecai b. Hillel, martyred at Nuremberg in 1298. He is sometimes wrongly identified with Mattithiah, the teacher...
MATTITHIAH B. JOSEPH THE PROVENÇAL – Chief rabbi of Paris and of France from 1360 to 1385; son of Joseph b. Johanan of Treves, rabbi of Marseilles; pupil of Perez b. Isaac ha-Kohen and of Nissim b. Reuben of Gerona. In 1360 King Charles V. appointed him chief rabbi...
MATTITHIAH OF PARIS – Head of the Talmudic school of Paris in the eleventh century and doubtless identical with Mattithiah b. Moses, one of Rashi's pupils. He is occasionally called Mattithiah the Great. He corresponded with Samuel. b. Meïr...
MEÏR B. ISAAC OF TRINQUETAILLE – French scholar of the twelfth century; a member of the family of Menahem Meïri of Perpignan. He was a native of Carcassonne, whence his father took him to Provence, where he soon became one of the most distinguished pupils of...
MEÏR BEN JOSEPH BEN MERWAN HA-LEVI – French scholar; flourished at Narbonne in the twelfth century; brother of the nasi R. Moses ben Joseph ben Merwan, and pupil of Isaac ben Merwan, head of the Narbonne academy in the early part of the twelfth century. He was held...
MELUN – Principal town of the department Seine-et-Marne, France. There was a very important Jewish community here as early as the twelfth century. The scholars connected with the Talmudic school of the city took part in the synod held...
MENDE – Capital of the ancient county of Gévaudan; now chief town in the department of Lozère, France. In the twelfth century a Jewish community existed here, having a synagogue, whose ruins still (1904) remain. In 1307 a contention...