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S. Kahn,

Rabbi, Nîmes, France.

Contributions:
MILHAUD – Village in the department of Gard, France. In Renan-Neubauer, "Les Rabbins Français," p. 665, its name is given as . It has been erroneously confounded with Millau (the ancient Æmilianum or Amilbanum) in the department of...
MIRABEAU, GABRIEL HONORE RIQUETI, COMTE DE – French statesman of the revolutionary era; born at Bignon March 9, 1749; died at Paris April 2, 1791. Sent by De Calonne on a secret mission to Prussia, he became acquainted at Berlin with several distinguished Jews belonging to...
MONTÉLIMAR – Capital of the department of the Drome, France. A large number of Jews lived here from the beginning of the fourteenth century. They possessed a synagogue in the Rue du Puits-Neuf, formerly the Rue de la Juiverie, as well as a...
MONTPELLIER – School of Medicine. Capital of the department of Hérault, a part of the old province of Languedoc, France. It is sometimes called also "Har Ga'ash" = "Mountain of Trembling," "Har ha-Niḳra Pissulano" = "Mount Pessulanus," or...
MORDECAI NATHAN, MAESTRO – French physician; lived at Avignon in the middle of the fifteenth century. He corresponded with Joseph Colon, who highly praises his medical skill and addresses him by the title , a term which, according to some authorities...
MOSES (LEVI) B. SOLOMON OF BEAUCAIRE – French writer; lived at Salon in the early part of the fourteenth century. He was the teacher of Kalonymus b. Kalonymus of Arles, who called him "the learned scholar," "the ornament of sages." He translated into Hebrew Averroes'...
NANCY – Chief town of the department of Meurthe-et-Moselle, France, and the ancient capital of Lorraine; seat of a consistory whose district comprises 4,500 souls. When Jews first settled there is unknown; but they were expelled toward...
NANTES – Chief town of the department of the Loire-Inférieure, France. According to Camille Mellinet ("La Commune et la Milice de Nantes," i. 37), there were Jews in Nantes in the tenth century. Other historians, however, date the first...
NARBONI, DAVID BEN JOSEPH – Rabbi; lived at Narbonne, France, in the first half of the twelfth century. He was probably the son of Joseph Gaon of Narbonne, who is mentioned by Abraham ben Nathan of Lunel in his "Sefer ha-Manhig" (p. 86). Narboni...
NARBONNE – Chief town in the department of Aude, France. Jews were settled here as early as the fifth century. They lived on the whole amicably with their Christian neighbors, although in 589 the council of Narbonne forbade them to sing...
NATHAN BEN JOSEPH 'OFFICIAL – French rabbi and controversialist; lived at Sens in the second half of the thirteenth century. He was one of the most famous rabbis of France in the Middle Ages. His son Joseph the Zealot calls him "the prince of orators," or...
NATHAN MORDECAI – French physician; lived at Avignon in the middle of the fifteenth century. He was in correspondence with Joseph Colon, who speaks highly of Nathan's medical knowledge and who gives him the title of "mori," an expression which,...
NATHAN BEN SAMUEL – Spanish physician; flourished, as far as is known, at the beginning of the fourteenth century. He is designated in some manuscripts by the abbreviation which some render "Nathan ben Samuel Tibbon," and others, more correctly...
NEVERS – Chief city of the department of the Nièvre, France, with a population of 27,108 (1904). In the twelfth century Jews were permitted to reside at Nevers on condition of paying to the seigniors of the city a tax of five sous per...
NICE – In the Seventeenth Century. City of southern France. Jews settled there in the fourth century, and, as in the other Gallic cities along the coast of the Mediterranean, were the intermediaries in the commercial transactions...
NÎMES – Early History. Chief town of the department of Gard, France. Jews were settled here in very remote times. Hilderic, Count of Nîmes, gave a favorable reception to a certain number of Jews who were driven out of Spain in 672 by...
NYONS – Town in the ancient province of Dauphiné, France. A Jewish community must have existed there before the fourteenth century; for a document in Latin of the year 1322 speaks of the "old Jews" and of "the newly arrived Hebrews."...
ORLEANS – Chief city of the department of Loiret, France. Its Jewish community dates from the sixth century. The various councils which met at that time in the city enacted special laws against the Jews. In 533 the second Council of...
PAMIERS – One of the principal towns of the department of Ariège, France. A Jewish community existed here in the twelfth century. In 1256 Maurin II., Abbot of St. Antoine, granted protection to the Jew Bonio, son of Beslinenga, in...
PASTOUREAUX – French religious fanatics of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. In the year 1251 an unknown man, called "Le Maître de Hongrie," began to preach the Crusade in the plains of Picardy. In a short time he gained numerous...
PERPIGNAN – Disabilities and Restrictions. Ancient capital of the county of Roussillon, now the chief town of the department of Pyrénées-Orientales, France. Jews probably lived in Perpignan in the latter half of the twelfth century; for in...
PERTUIS – Cantonal chief town of the department of Vaucluse, France. Jews were settled there as early as the thirteenth century. According to a document dated 1283, they, like theircoreligionists of the towns of Aix, Saint-Maximin,...
PEYREHORADE – Cantonal chief town of the department of Landes, France. A number of Jews who had been expelled from Spain and Portugal settled in this vicinity toward the close of the fifteenth century, and founded a small community which they...
POITIERS – French city; capital of the department of Vienne. In 1236 the Jews of Poitiers and the adjacent country were harried by the Crusaders, although Pope Gregory IX., in a letter to the bishop, strongly condemned their excesses. Four...
POITOU – Ancient province of France. Several Jewish communities were founded there in the twelfth century, notably those of Niort, Bressuire, and Thouars (department of Deux-Sèvres), Chatellerault (Vienne), and Mortagne and Tyfauges (La...