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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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Edgar Mels,

New York City.

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BESANT, SIR WALTER – English writer; novelist; born at Porṭsmouth Aug. 14, 1836; educated at King's College, London, and at Christ's College, Caṃbridge; died in London June 11, 1901. Besant was among those persons who helped the Russian and Polish...
BESSELS, EMIL – German-American Arctic explorer and naturalist; born at Heidelberg June 2, 1847; died at Stuttgart March 30, 1888. At the university of his native place he studied medicine and zoology. In 1869, under the encouragement of...
BETTELHEIM – Name of a Hungarian family. The first bearer of it is said to have lived toward the second half of the eighteenth century, in Presburg. To account for its origin the following episode is related in the family records: Costumes...
BETTELHEIM – Name of a Hungarian family. The first bearer of it is said to have lived toward the second half of the eighteenth century, in Presburg. To account for its origin the following episode is related in the family records: Costumes...
BEVIS MARKS SYNAGOGUE – The oldest Jewish house of worship in London; established by the Sephardic Jews in 1698, when Rabbi David Nieto took spiritual charge of the congregation. At that time the worshipers met in a small synagogue in Cree Church lane;...
BLAND, MARIA THERESA – English actress and singer; born in 1769 of Italian-Jewish parents; died at London Jan. 15, 1838. When only four years old she took a part in a performance at Hughes' Riding School, London. After studying for some years she made...
BLAYNEY, BENJAMIN – English divine and Hebraist; born 1728; died Sept. 20, 1801. He was educated at Oxford, took the master's degree in 1735, and became fellow and vice-principal of Hertford College in 1768. He was employed by the Clarendon Press...
BLOCH, BIANCA – German authoress; born at Lauban, Silesia, Jan. 19, 1848, where her father was attendant at a local court. Owing to the reduced circumstances of the family, she was restricted to merely a rudimentary education, but subsequently...
BLOCH, LUDWIG – German dramatist; born at Berlin Dec. 6, 1859; son of the theatrical publisher Eduard. Bloch was educated at the Friedrich-Wilhelm Gymnasium, entering his father's business in 1875. Six years later he traveled through Great...
BOAS, EDUARD – German author and traveler; born at Landsberg-on-the-Warthe Jan. 1, 1815; died there June, 1853. He was destined for a commercial career by his parents; and, for the purpose of acquiring a knowledge of international trade...
BOGNAR, FREDERIKE – German actress; born at Gotha Feb. 16, 1840. Her father was a singer, and Frederike was destined for a musical career. After appearing a few times in children's parts in Budapest, she was sent to Munich to study music under Mme....
BRASCH, MORITZ – German philosopher and litterateur; born at Zempelburg, West Prussia, Aug. 18, 1843; died at Leipzig Sept. 14, 1895. He was educated at the universities of Berlin, Greifswald, and Jena, settling at the first-mentioned place on...
BRAUN, JOSEF – Austrian journalist, dramatist, and librettist; born at Budapest, May 5, 1840. Braun was educated for the profession of medicine at the University of Vienna, but abandoned his medical studies in 1860 to join the editorial staff...
BUNNEY, EDMUND – English preacher and Hebrew scholar; born at Vache, near Chalfont, St. Giles, Buckinghamshire, in 1540; died at Carwood, Yorkshire, Feb. 26, 1618 or 1619. He was made prebendary of Oxgate, St. Paul's, London, in 1564; and in...
BYRON, GEORGE GORDON, LORD – English poet; born in Halles street, London, Jan. 22, 1788; died at Missolonghi, Greece, April 19, 1824. The only one of his works which has any relation to Jewish topics is his "Hebrew Melodies," some of which have proved as...
CALM, MARIE – German authoress and advocate of women's suffrage; born at Arolsen, Germany, April 3, 1832; died at Cassel, Germany, Feb. 22, 1887. She managed a seminary for indigent girls at Cassel, and was one of the original members of the...
CALVERT, THOMAS – English Hebrew scholar; born 1606; died at York March, 1679. He wrote "The Blessed Jew of Morocco" (York, 1648), an adaptation of the well-known letter of Samuel Maroccanus, itself probably derived from the polemical treatise of...
CANSTATT, KARL FRIEDRICH – German physician and medical author; born at Regensburg July 11, 1807; died at Erlangen March 10, 1850. He was one of the pioneers of the modern school of medicine in Germany, and numbered Professor Virchow among his pupils....
CAPITO (KÖPFEL), WOLFGANG FABRICIUS – German Hebrew scholar; born at Hagenau, Alsace, in 1478; died Nov., 1541. In 1515 he was appointed professor of theology at Basel; and eight years later provost of St. Thomas, Strasburg. He wrote a Hebrew grammar and various...
CHOTZNER, JOSEPH – English rabbi and author; born at Cracow, Austria, May 11, 1844; educated at the Breslau rabbinical seminary and the University of Breslau. After his ordination Chotzner became the first rabbi of the congregation at Belfast,...
CHRONEGK, LUDWIG – German actor; born at Brandenburg-on-the-Havel Nov. 3, 1837; died at Meiningen July 8, 1890. He was the stage-manager and "Intendanzrath" of the famous Meininger troupe established at Weimar by Duke George of Meiningen. Chronegk...
COHEN, ALFRED J – American dramatic critic; born May 14, 1861, at Birmingham, England, where he attended King Edward's School. Then followed three years' study of dramatic art in Paris, after which (1887) Dale went to New York and began his...
COHEN, BENJAMIN LOUIS – English politician and communal worker; member of Parliament for East Islington since 1892; born in London in 1844; son of Louis Cohen, founder of the firm of Louis Cohen & Sons, which he joined on reaching manhood. Cohen was...
COHEN, EMIL WILHELM – German mineralogist; born at Aakjaer, near Horsens, Jutland, Oct. 12, 1842. He studied at the universities of Heidelberg and Berlin, and from 1867 to 1869 was assistant at the mineralogical institute of the former seat of...
COHEN, FRANCIS LYON – English rabbi, author, and expert on Hebrew music; born at Aldershot Nov. 14, 1862, and educated at Jews' College and University College, London. Cohen became minister of the congregation in South Hackney (1883-1885), then of...