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JESUS OF NAZARETH – ...direction (see Jesus in Jewish Legend). Under these circumstances it is not necessary in this place to do more than to give a sketch of the main historical events in the public career ...of Jesus, with an attempt to ascertain his personal relations to contemporary Judaism; for the theological superstructure based upon his life and death, and certain mythological conceptions associated with them ...Testament there are four "Gospels" professing to deal with the life of Jesus independently; but it is now almost universally agreed that the first three of these, known by the names of "Matthew," "Mark," and "Luke...
WOLFF, JOSEPH – ...May 2, 1862. His father, who was rabbi at Württemberg, sent him to the Protestant Lyceum at Stuttgart, and while still a youth he learned Latin, Greek, and Hebrew. Leaving home on account of his inclination ...Wolff, the politician and diplomatist. After her death he married(1861) Louisa Decima, daughter of James King, rector of St. Peter-le-Poer, London. Wolff signed himself "Apostle of Our Lord Jesus Christ ...for Palestine, Persia, Bokhara, and Balkh." He was the author of the following works: "Missionary Journal" (London, 1824; 2d ed. 1827-29); "Sketch of the Life and Journal of Joseph Wolff" (Norwich, 1827...
ALGAZI (ALGHASI), SAMUEL BEN ISAAC BEN JOSEPH, of Candia (Crete) – ...Talmudical commentator and historian, died shortly before 1588. He came of a family of scholars, both father and grandfather being known as Talmudists. Joseph Solomon Delmedigo bestowed upon Algazi the ...birth [of Jesus]; that is, the eighteenth year of the one hundred and ninety-sixth cycle; that is, the two hundred and seventy-seventh year of the Seleucidan era, equivalent to the three hundred and seventeenth ...title of "Gaon," at the same time declaring that he was the most prominent pupil of Delmedigo's ancestor Judah ben Elijah. Algazi does not seem to have left Crete; but the fact that this island belonged to Venice...
JOSEPH BEN NATHAN OFFICIAL – ...take part in religious controversies, in which he acquired great skill. Accounts of these controversies, together with those of his father and of some French rabbis, were collected by Joseph in a work entitled ...father held a public office to which Joseph probably succeeded; whence the surname "Official." Coming thus in contact with high officials and ecclesiastical dignitaries, Joseph, like his father, was often invited to ...conception, the divinity of Jesus, his mission on earth, his birth, death, and resurrection, are analyzed and discussed; and there occur refutations of some attacks on Judaism, such as the accusation of ritual murder...
JAMES, GENERAL EPISTLE OF – ...Letter of exhortation and instruction, written by "James, a servant of God and of the Lord Jesus Christ," and addressed "to the twelve tribes which are of the Dispersion" (i. 1, R. V.). The writer is ...supposed to be James, the brother of Jesus, on which account the epistle was accorded the first place among the so-called "general epistles" of the New Testament. As a matter of fact, aside from the reference to Jesus ...ii. 2), not "church" ('εκκληςία), and that the Hebrew prophets Job and Elijah are regarded as patterns, but nowhere the personality of Jesus (v. 10, 11, 17 et al.). The canonical character of the...
ANNAS – ...9, § 1). These were Eleazar, Jonathan, Theophilus, Anan, and Matthias. His daughter was married to the high priest Joseph, who, under the surname of Caiaphas, held that office about ten years (27-37).

TROKI – ...Messiah were not fulfilled." His arguments on these points are as follows: (1) Jesus' pedigree: Without discussing the question of the relationship of Joseph to David, which is more than doubtful, one may ask, What ...has Jesus to do with Joseph, who was not his father? (2) His acts: According to Matt. x. 34, Jesus said, "Think not that I am come to make peace on earth: I came not to send peace, but a sword. For I am come to ...contrary to those of Jesus. (3) The period of his existence: It is evident that Jesus did not come at the time foretold by the Prophets; for they predicted the advent of the Messiah in the "last days" (Isa.ii. 2). (4...
MELCHIZEDEK – ...especial force as a type of the monotheist of the pre-Abrahamic time or of non-Jewish race, like Enoch. Like Enoch, too, he was apotheosized. He was placed in the same category with Elijah, the Messiah ben Joseph, and ...the Messiah ben David (Suk. 52b, where "Kohenẓedek" should be corrected to "Malkiẓedeḳ"). The singular feature of supernatural origin is ascribed to all four, in that they are described as being "without father ...brought from the ark to Jerusalem as the center of the earth and fulfil the ministry before God." The angel Michael then took away Melchizedek, when fifteen years of age, from his father, and, after having anointed...
SAADIA B. JOSEPH (Sa'id al-Fayyumi) – ...by Saadia in calling his son Dosa. Nothing is known, however, of the latter except his name. Regarding Joseph, Saadia's father, a statement of Ben Meïr has been preserved to the effect that he was compelled to ...with the exilarch allude to the low calling followed by his father, and speak of his parent as a non-Jew. On the other hand, Saadia in his polemic "Sefer ha-Galui" lays stress upon his ancient Jewish lineage ...other, declaring that he deposed his opponent from office; and David b. Zakkai appointed the utterly unimportant Joseph b. Jacob as gaon of Sura, while Saadia conferred the exilarchate on David's brother Ḥasan...
TESTAMENTS OF THE TWELVE PATRIARCHS – ...Pirḳe R. El. xxxix.; Soṭah 13a), Naphtali served his father, Jacob, as a messenger; and in the father's grief at the loss of Joseph he was comforted by Naphtali, who told him of two dreams in which the future ...flock at night, and to kill every wild beast that assailed it. Joseph, however, was too delicate to stay with the flock in the heat of the day and went home to his father, whom he informed that Gad and the other ...Joseph, of temperance and chastity; Benjamin, of purity of heart.Contents. In each testament the patriarch first narrates his own life, dwelling on his virtues...
POLEMICS AND POLEMICAL LITERATURE – ...between Gog and Magog; etc. Did these take place at the time of Jesus? (8) Did any prophet predict that the Messiah would abrogate the Mosaic law? "These," says Joseph ibn Vives, "are only a few of the numerous ...Joseph to David, which is very doubtful, one may ask what has Jesus to do with Joseph, who was not his father? (2) Hisacts: According to Matt. x. 34, Jesus said, "Think not that I come to make peace on earth; I come ...belonging to the same period, written by the converted Jew Ariston of Pella, and in which a Christian named Jason and a Jew named Papiscus are alleged to have discussed the nature of Jesus. Among other polemical works...
CHRISTIANITY IN ITS RELATION TO JUDAISM – ...almost complete. In vain did the early Christians protest against the deification of Jesus ("Clementine Homilies," xvi. 15). He is in Paul's system the image of God the Father (II Cor. iv. 4; compare I Cor. viii. 6 ...Christianity is the system of religious truth based upon the belief that Jesus of Nazareth was the expected Messiah, or Christ, and that in him all the hopes and prophecies of Israel concerning the future ...Jesus appeared as the end and fulfilment of all Hebrew prophecy. It furthermore claims that Jesus, its Christ, was and is a son of God in a higher and an essentially different sense than any other human being...
TRINITY – ...Equalization of the Son with the Father marks an innovation in the Pauline theology: "Yet to us there is one God, the Father, of whom are all things, and we unto him; and one Lord, Jesus Christ, through whom are all ...The fundamental dogma of Christianity; the concept of the union in one God of Father, Son, and Holy Spirit as three infinite persons. It was the Nicene Council and even more especially the Athanasian Creed ...Although the Judæo-Christian sect of the Ebionites protested against this apotheosis of Jesus ("Clementine Homilies," xvi. 15), the great mass of Gentile Christians accepted it...
AARON'S ROD – ...who buried it in Jerusalem. There it remained hidden until the birth of Jesus, when the place of its concealment was revealed to Joseph, who took it with him on the journey to Egypt. Judas Iscariot stole it from ...James, brother of Jesus, who had received it from Joseph. At Jesus' crucifixion the Jews had no wood for the transverse beam of the cross, so Judas produced the staff for that purpose ("Book of the Bee," Syr. ed ...possession of Joseph. On Joseph's death the Egyptian nobles stole some of his belongings, and, among them, Jethro appropriated the staff. Jethro planted the staff in his garden, when its marvelous virtue was revealed by...
CONFISCATION OF HEBREW BOOKS – ...decision, and men like Reuchlin gave their answer in favor of the Talmud and kindred works, though naturally against Lipman's anti-Christian writings and the "Toledot Yeshu" (History of the Birth of Jesus of Nazareth ...The first known decree directed against Hebrew literature is one of the emperor Justinian (553) forbidding the Jews to use "what is called by them 'The Second Edition'" (Secunda Editio, δευτέρωσις ...Apparently this term was used to designate the Midrashic, traditional interpretation of the Scriptures. To what extent the decree was enforced is not known. Entirely unauthorized and without definite purpose was the...
GABRIEL – ...de Jacob" (1888) Gabriel is mentioned as protecting Joseph when tempted by Potiphar's wife, the angel assuming the guise of Joseph's father. This occurs also in the works of Arabic authors (Ṭabari, Zamakhshari ...have a son whose name shall be "Jesus" (Luke i. 19-31). Gabriel is one of the four angels that stand at the four sides of God's throne and serve as guardian angels of the four parts of the globe (Enoch, ix. 1 ...means of which she afterward proved her innocence (Gen. xxxviii.); Gabriel having restored them (Soṭah 10b). Gabriel taught Joseph the seventy languages of the world (ib. 36b); he led Jochebed to Amram (Yalḳ...
DERENBURG (DERENBOURG) – ...being especially entrusted, under the direction of his father, Joseph Derenbourg, with the Himyaritic and Sabean section. In 1884 he was appointed professor of Arabic at the Ecole des Hautes-Etudes, and in 1885 ...Orientalist Joseph (Naftali) Derenburg, born at Mayence, France, Aug. 21, 1811; died at Bad-Ems, Germany, July 29, 1895. To the age of thirteen Joseph's education was confined exclusively to rabbinical ...studies. When sufficiently prepared, Joseph entered the gymnasiumin Mayence, and then attended lectures in the University of Giessen, and afterward in that of Bonn, where he studied Arabic under Freytag. It was...
MAR – ...Jesus was addressed by his disciples both as "Mari" and as "Rabbi" (comp. Dalman, "Die Worte Jesu," i. 269 et seq.). In conversation, "Mari" was used as a respectful form of address in Palestine (comp. Yer ...which also means "our lord." This is the title subsequently applied as a mark of respect to Joseph Caro, the author of the Shulḥan ...customarily employed in addressing the sages. It is said of King Jehoshaphat that on seeing a scholar he rose from his throne, and saluted him with the words, "Abi, abi; rabbi, rabbi; mari, mari" (Ket. 103b; Mak. 24a...
HIGH PRIEST – ...Joseph Cabi, son of Simon (xx. 8, § 11)78.Ananus, son of Ananus (xx. 9, § 1)79.Jesus, son of Damneus (xx. 9, § 1; "B. J." vi. 2, § 2)80 ...Chron. xxiv. 2, 3). After the Exile, the succession seems to have been, at first, in a direct line from father to son; but later the civil authorities arrogated to themselves the right of appointment. Antiochus IV ...young (νηπιος) to succeed his father (ib. xii. 5, § 1). Legitimacy of birth was essential; hence the care in the keeping of the genealogical records (Josephus, "Contra Ap." i., § 7) and the distrust of one...
APOSTASY AND APOSTATES FROM JUDAISM – ...touching communication to his unfortunate brethren, sent in 1160 by Maimun ben Joseph, the father of Maimonides, he exhorts his brethren to remain firm in their faith, and advises those that have yielded to encourage ...name="anchor6">Joseph of Tiberias. An apostate, Joseph by name, a former member of the Sanhedrin of Tiberias, raised to the dignity of a comes by Constantine the emperor, in reward for his Apostasy, is ...populated by Jews and soon afterward the centers of a Jewish revolt against Rome—justifies Grätz in assuming that the dignity of comes conferred upon Joseph covered a multitude of sins committed against his former...
WELL – ...water is stored. Of the former, which were probably designated also as "wells of living water" (Gen. xxvi. 19), the best preserved is that atthe foot of Gerizim, which in the time of Jesus was called "Jacob's Well ...cisterns had their origin in the time of the Patriarchs. Abraham dug a well in Beer-sheba (Gen. xxi. 30), and Isaac restored the wells dug by his father, which had been filled up by the Philistines. Ordered by the ...later times, when prisons were built, they were still constructed for this purpose. Reuben counseled his brethren to throw Joseph into a cistern (Gen. xxxvii. 22); when Jeremiah was accused of having incited the...
CHUMACEIRO, ARON MENDES – ...librarian of the bet ha-midrash Ets Haim, and editor of "Het Israelietisch Weekblad."4. Joseph Ḥayyim Mendes Chumaceiro: Rabbi and editor; born in Amsterdam July 3 ...1844; studied for the ministry under his father at Curaçao. From 1867 to 1874 he was rabbi of Beth-El congregation, Charleston, S. C.; from 1874 to 1880, of Nefashot Yebudah, New Orleans, La.; from 1884 to 1887 ...akam of Curaçao, Dutch West Indies; born at Amsterdam Jan. 28, 1810; died there Sept. 18, 1882. He received the various rabbinical degrees (that of "morenu" in 1846) at the celebrated bet ha-midrash Ets...
AUSTRIA – ...Austria, as in other countries, invented such fables in order to free themselves from the accusation of having participated in the crucifixion of Jesus; but more likely the whole story is an invention of the ...to come under Albrecht V. (1404-39), who, when at fourteen he was declared of age, succeeded his father Albrecht IV., and the latter's cousin, Leopold IV. Albrecht was a religious fanatic; and the popular ...was a religious fanatic, and in the treatment of the Jews followed the example of his father. In charters granted to the municipality of Vienna (June 6, 1453, and Sept. 27, 1455) he confirmed his father's law...
SPAIN – ...Jekuthiel shared the fate of Samuel's son Abu Ḥusain Joseph ibn Nagdela, who succeeded his father as minister upon the latter's death (1055); Abu Ḥusain was accused by his enemies of treason after having held office ...Jews of Toledo, in a letter addressed to the Sanhedrin at Jerusalem, declared against the crucifixion of Jesus, can not be credited. Yet it is certain that the apostle Paul intended to visit Spain to proclaim his ...persecution in Granada the talented philosopher Abu al-Faḍl ibn Ḥasdai was appointed vizier in Saragossa; he was the son of the poet Joseph ibn Ḥasdai, who had fled from Cordova in 1013, and he held the office of vizier...
MANDÆANS – ...ayye Tlitaye ("third life"), often called Abatur ("father of the 'utre"). He sits on the verge of the world of light that lies toward the lower regions, and weighs in his balance the deeds of the spirits ascending ...Yaḥya (John), son of Zechariah, who was an incarnation of Hibil.During forty years Yaḥya baptized myriads of men in the Jordan. By a mistake he baptized the false prophet Yishu Meshiḥa (Jesus), son of the ...Language. Eastern religious sect that professes and practises an admixture of Christian, Jewish, and heathen doctrines and customs. The members of the sect...
ZADOK – ...Joseph, the father of Jesus (Matt. i. 14).G. S. Kr.2. Sadducean leader. The only data concerning the origin of the Sadducees are based on certain deductions drawn from their name, for a late rabbinical ...apparently termed the daughter of Zadok to emphasize her noble lineage, since her father may have been a descendant of the first Zadok (II Kings xv. 33; II Chron. xxvii. 1). A Zadok is also mentioned in the genealogy of ...411.J. S. Kr.3. Tanna of priestly descent; father of Eleazar. He flourished in the years preceding and following the beginning of the common era. According to an account which must refer to him in the...
BENVENISTE – ...Benveniste (Zag): Son of Joseph, (11); father of Sheshet Benveniste (No. 19). He was physician in ordinary to the king of Aragon in the early part of the thirteenth century, and lived at Barcelona; such was the ...of which the most important was the following: On the occasion of a malicious charge of ritual murder preferred against the Jews in a city near Ecija, Abraham Benveniste, together with Joseph ha-Nasi, the chief ...circumcision Joseph Albo made a speech. Together with his elder brother Vidal, he furthered the study of the Law and encouraged Jewish scholars by his support.Bibliography:
KORAN – ...99); of Joseph (xii. 33, 37); of Moses (vii. 103, xxviii. 15); of the Egyptian magicians (xx. 75); and of Jesus (xix. 31).A few legends, in addition to the Biblical narratives, have been taken into the ...and Jonah; but from the New Testament, besides Jesus and Mary, only John is mentioned. In the Old Testament narratives the Koran frequently follows the legends of the Jewish Haggadah rather than the Biblical ...to those that asked who had done it (xxi. 58-64), agree with Gen. R. xvii.; the sign that restrained Joseph from sin (xii. 24) corresponds to Soṭah 36b; the refusal of Moses to accept food from the Egyptian...
DIVORCE – ...The opinion of the school of Hillel prevailed. Philo of Alexandria ("Of Special Laws Relating to Adultery," etc., ch. v.; English ed., ii. 310, 311) and Josephus ("Ant." iv. 8) held this opinion. Jesus seems to ...named case the Jewish courts, having lost their authority over him, could appeal to the courts of the Gentiles to carry out their mandate ("Bet Joseph," 134); the husband's licentiousness (Eben ha-'Ezer, 154, 1 ...might be pregnant might not be in doubt (Yeb. iv. 10).The children of the divorced woman remained in her custody; but the custody of the boys could be claimed by the father after their sixth year (Ket. 65b...
BA'AL SHEM-ṬOB, ISRAEL B. ELIEZER – ...exception of Jesus and the Judæo-Christians, there is no other Jewish sect in which the founder is as important as his doctrines. Besht himself is still the real center for the Ḥasidim; his teachings have almost sunk ...class of people who nearly corresponded to the publicans of the time of Jesus (a number of whom he raised to a higher level), furnished a silent but effective protest against the practise of the rabbis, who, in ...father, Eliezer, whose wife was still living, was seized during an attack (by the Tatars?), carried from his home in Wallachia, and sold as a slave to a prince. On account of his wisdom he found favor with the...