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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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ELIEZER (ELEAZAR) B. ZADOK – ...assumption that he was the first compiler of a now lost treatise on mourning called "Ebel Zuṭarta" (see Brüll, "Jahrb." i. 16-26; Klotz, "Ebel Rabbati," pp. 3 et seq.). How long he remained in Jabneh is not stated; but...
ENDOR, THE WITCH OF – ...Yhwh, and whose ordinary oracles (dreams, urim, and prophets) had failed him. The story is found in I Sam. xxviii. 4-25. After Samuel's death and burial with due mourning ceremonies in Ramah, Saul had driven...
FUNERAL ORATION – ...participation in the general mourning by sitting down upon the ground for a few moments. In almost every collection of sermons there may be found some such addresses. Adolph Jellinek prepared a bibliography of Hebrew...
HIRSCH, CLARA DE (Baroness de Hirsch-Gereuth) – ...to them, a girl and a boy. The daughter died in infancy, and Lucien in 1887, at the age of thirty-one. From this blow the baroness never recovered, nor did she thereafter lay aside her apparel of mourning...
JOSIAH – ...great mourning in Jerusalem which followed this disaster (comp. II Chron. xxxv. 24, 25; see Hadad). The story of Josiah's reign in II Chronicles xxxiv.-xxxv. is substantially in...
PIPE – ...Isa. xxx. 29). The Israelites used also the "nebi'im" in connection with the kettledrum (I Sam. x. 5). The flute was, in addition, the special instrument to denote mourning (Jer. xlviii. 36); and among the later...
OIL – ...pleasure forbidden during seasons of fasting and mourning, but it was also highly valued as a hygienic agency, especially in the case of wounds and eruptions, and as a gargle (Yoma viii. 1; ib. Gemara 76b). In...
PENITENTIAL DAYS – ...drink, to a greater or lesser degree, is deemed meritorious; but the time is not one for sadness or mourning. Hence a wedding within the Ten Days, though not usual, is not forbidden.LEIDESDORFF, WILLIAM – ...school, served as alcalde, as a member of the Ayuntamiento, as one of the six aldermen, or town-councilors, and as city treasurer. On the day of his burial the town was in mourning, the flags were at half-mast...
MIN – ...the laws of mourning after his death, but were required to assume festive garments and rejoice (Sem. ii. 10; Yoreh De'ah, 345). The testimony of the min was not admitted in evidence in Jewish courts (Shulḥan...
MITER – ...for a bridegroom and for the daughters of Zion (Isa. iii. 20, lxi. 10). Being a personal ornament, it was removed during periods of mourning (ib. lxi. 3; Ezek. xxiv. 17, 23).The priestly miters are...
MANISSA – ...girls who wish to marry; the Ḥesed shel Emet, which provides for poor families in time of mourning; the Shilluḥim, to assist strangers and the poor to emigrate; and the 'Ozer Dallim, which provides the poor with...
MENAHEM B. AARON IBN ZERAH – ...iẓit, etc. Part ii.: Laws concerning forbidden foods. Part iii.: Marriage laws. Part iv.: Sabbath and feast-days. Part v.: Fast-days and laws for mourning. As a supplement to the last part is a treatise on the...
SIYYUM – ...the first nine days of Ab, although feasting is otherwise prohibited on those days, the mourning period for the destruction of Jerusalem ("Sefer Maharil," p. 32b, Warsaw, 1874). R. Moses Minz (15th cent.) advises...
SUMPTUARY LAWS – ...Burial, where the most important reference is that to Yer. M. Ḳ. 32b. Here may be added what is said in a baraita (M. Ḳ. 27a): "Formerly they brought the [bodies of the] rich to the house of mourning in nettings...
TA'ANIT – ...strictness in fasting (§§ 4-6); nature of the national mourning in case no rain falls despite many fast-days (§ 7).Ch. ii.: The ceremonies which must be observed in fasting (§ 1); the prayers and the blowing of...
TAḤANUN – ...of mourning or of joy; nor is it said on Sabbath, holy days, or semiholy days.The ceremony of prostration is derived from Moses, who "fell down before the Lord" (Deut. ix. 18), and Joshua, who "fell to...
ZIONIDES – ...enthroned in the East, appease the mourning dove"); Judah al-Ḥarizi (13th cent.), author of the song ("Peace be to the city of Salem [Jerusalem]"); and Israel Najara (16th...
COLOR – ...sad countenance (Jer. viii. 21), to mourning garments, to the gates of a mourning city (Jer. xiv. 2), and to the sky (ib. iv. 28). The hif'il of the same verb is used in a causative sense; e.g., "make dark" the ...adverb "ḳedorannit," "wrapped in mourning" (Mal. iii. 14)."Ḥashak" (to be dark), a word generally employed to signify the darkness of approaching night (Isa. v. 30; Job xviii. 6), is also used of the eyes becoming ...explanation.Black or dark color points to mourning or affliction (II Sam. xix. 24; Zech. vi. 6, 8); such was probably also the color of sackcloth used in mourning. On the other hand, white suggests purity (Isa. i. 18; Ps....
ANOINTING – ...xii. 20; Ezek. xvi. 9; Susanna, 17); it was a part of the toilet for a feast (Eccl. ix. 8, Ps. xxiii. 5) [in which a different term is poetically used] (Amos, vi. 6). Hence, it was omitted in mourning as a sign ...of grief (II Sam. xiv. 2, Dan. x. 3), and resumed to indicate that mourning was over (II Sam. xii. 20; Judith, x. 3). Pouring Oil...
ELIEZER (LIEZER) BEN HYRCANUS – ...to him in a very considerate manner. Akiba, dressed in mourning, appeared before him and, seated at some distance from him, respectfully addressed him with "My master, it appears to me that thy colleagues keep ...was "ṭahor" (= "pure"), and this the sages considered as an auspicious omen of his purity; whereupon they all rent their garments in token of mourning, and R. Joshua revoked the sentence of excommunication.
EUPHEMISM – ...expressions as and . The first is used for "bleeding" in Shab. 129a, for "mourning" in M. Ḳ. 18a (comp. Vulg. "factus" in the sense ...and corresponding to the Aramaic , i.e., "mourning-feast," Targ. Yer. Num. xxv. 2); ("day of abuse," for "heathen...
JOB, TESTAMENT OF – ...was taken. Yet under all these sad happenings Job bravely spoke the words: "The Lord gave, and the Lord hath taken away; blessed be the name of the Lord" (Job i. 21). While Job sat on his throne mourning over his ...Throne is erected. Amid the singing of his daughters and the great mourning of the people, particularly the poor and the fatherless, his body was taken to the grave. The dirge is given at the close of the book (ch...
ABSALOM – ...darts through the heart of the rebellious prince. The death of Absalom put an end to the rebellion. According to II Sam. xviii. 33, xix. 1-5, David's mourning was greater for Absalom than for Amnon.
JAHRZEIT – ...Accompanied with Fasting. Judæo-German term denoting the anniversary of a death, commemorated by mourning and by reciting the Ḳaddish. The custom of...
GRACE AT MEALS – ...used by children.In the house of mourning a modified grace, as given in the "Siddur Rab Amram," is recited. The address runs: "Let us bless the Comforter of mourners," etc.; the first and second...
HADASSI, JUDAH BEN ELIJAH HAABEL – ...between parents and children, of inheritance, mourning, etc. The sixth contains alphabets 265-274, and the seventh, alphabets 275-336, the latter covering all the laws concerning adultery, incest, cleanliness and...
ḤANINA B. PAPPA – ...one occasion he made a mistake in connection with a mourning, and in the succeeding night was corrected by a dream in which he heard the message, "Thou hast disobeyed the mouth of the Lord" (I Kings xiii. 21; Yer...
DELMEDIGO, ELIJAH CRETENSIS BEN MOSES ABBA – ...learned Christians, clad in mourning, attended Elijah's funeral.His Works. Elijah's scientific activity lay chiefly in translating from Hebrew into Latin and in...
SANDALS – ...common people usually went barefoot, wearing sandals on special occasions only, e.g., in traveling (Ex. xii. 11; Josh. ix. 5). The custom of going barefoot while in mourning, followed even by the nobles...