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RED HEIFER – ...the first sacrifice being used to purify the people at the expiration of thirty days of mourning ("Ant." iv. 4, § 6).The sacrifice of the red heifer should be compared with that of the scapegoat, similarly...
ORPHAN – ...whole year, to one in mourning for his father or his mother (see Ḳaddish).Bibliography:
  • MOTHER – ...and saying to their mothers, "Where is corn and wine?" (Lam. ii. 11, 12); and when the Psalmist describes his utter wo, he laments: "As one mourning for his mother I was bowed down with grief" (Ps. xxxv. 14, Hebr...
    MOSES BEN NAḤMAN GERONDI – ...upon which the belief that there are 613 commandments is based to be merely homiletical.Views on Marriage and Mourning. After having given the earlier part or ...its functions being the work of God, none of its impulses can be regarded as intrinsically objectionable. In the "Torat ha-Adam," which deals with mourning rites, burial customs, etc., Naḥmanides sharply ...criticizes the philosophers who strove to render man indifferent to both pleasure and pain. This, he declares, is against the Law, which commands man to rejoice on the day of joy and weep on the day of mourning. The...
    MENAHEM BEN SARUḲ (MENAHEM B. JACOB IBN SARUḲ) – ...during the period of mourning. Menahem then returned to his native city, where he engaged in business.Ḥasdai ibn Shaprut, however, recalled Menahem to Cordova and encouraged him to complete his life-work, a...
    MERIDIAN, DATE- – ...questions, such as fixing the Sabbath and the holy days in the Jewish calendar, counting the days of mourning, and dating documents. While in civil matters the Jews probably would be guided by the international date...
    MAHAMAD – ...pay the fine of £40. The board was especially strict in the observance of the first ascama, that no one might hold services outside the synagogue, except in a house of mourning during the first seven days thereof...
    SHAMMASH – ...on the eve of the Day of Atonement and observing certain mourning rites on the Ninth of Ab in case it fell on the Sabbath.Schul- and Stadt- Shammash. In the...
    SPEKTOR, ISAAC ELHANAN – ...his death caused mourning in Orthodox communities throughout the world.Spektor was the author of the following works, which are considered authoritative by rabbinical scholars: "Be'er Yiẓḥaḳ," (Königsberg...
    SPINNING – ...garments of mourning ("saḳ"). The most usual materials, however, were wool and flax. The term "wool" ("zemer") by itself is restricted to the wool of sheep. As soon as shorn the fleece was washed in hot water to which...
    BENI-ISRAEL – ...the water was emptied from the pots in the house, and the body was buried with the head toward the east. Grape-juice or milk was drunk by those visiting the mourners in the evening during the days of mourning. It ...was customary for relatives and friends to bring "meals of condolence" to the house of mourning. On the seventh day after burial there was a mourning ceremony known as the "Jaharuth," in which a dish, containing...
    HAIR – ...subheadinglevel2" name="anchor3">Fashions Among Women. Among women long hair is extolled as a mark of beauty (Cant. iv. 1, vii. 6). A woman's hair was never cut except as a sign of deep mourning or of degradation (Jer ...class="subheadinglevel2" name="anchor4">Religious Customs. As a sign of mourning, part of the head, especially in front, was shaved. Although this was forbidden by the Law as a heathen superstition (Deut ...it in an entirely different light, as it forbids shaving of the head on the ground that Israel belongs to Yhwh only (Deut. xiv. 1). Originally, shaving in times of mourning indicated that the hair was...
    AMMI – ...presided over by R. Hoshaiah I. (Yer. Shab. iii. 5d), and later he went to Tiberias and became the disciple of R. Johanan, at whose death he voluntarily observed the ritual period of mourning prescribed on the...
    ARCHELAUS – ...customary seven days of mourning for his father, but in the midst of them gave to his boon companions a congratulatory banquet upon his accession. He carefully avoided placing his image upon his coinage in deference to...
    CHOIR – ...Second Temple, issued a decree prohibiting all instrumental or vocal music, as a sign of national mourning: "The ear that listens to music should be [barren] deaf; any house where there is song should eventually be...
    BLEMISH – ...uncertainty as to sex ( = , see Androgynos); state of mourning; or of inebriety...
    BURIAL SOCIETY – ...to pray in the house of mourning (Responsa, Rule 13, No. 12). The membership was apparently limited, and a deceased member could be replaced by a son over thirteen years of age (ib. Rule 13, No. 13).
    CHORIN (CHORINER), AARON – ...Sabbath and on holidays, the abridgment of the seven days of mourning, the use of the organ, etc., and gave a short sketch of his life. His biographer, Leopold Löw, wrote an introduction to this work.In...
    FEZ – ...screw curls behind their ears, shave the head, and leave a pig-tail pendent from the top. The women, who are partly secluded, wear after marriage a black wig covered with a kerchief. Women in mourning wear a red...
    EVE – ...xxi., xxii.). Seth was Eve's first child by Adam. Eve died shortly after Adam, on the completion of the six days of mourning, and was buried in the Cave of Machpelah (Pirḳe R. El. xx.). EXCOMMUNICATION – ...associate with the offender, or to sit within four cubits of him, or to eat in his company. He was expected to go into mourning and to refrain from bathing, cutting his hair, and wearing shoes, and he had to observe...
    HARP AND LYRE – ...thanksgiving (I Chron. xvi. 16; II Chron. v. 12; Ps. xxxiii. 2, lvii. 9, lxxi. 22). They were never used on occasions of mourning (Isa. xxiv. 8; Ezek. xxvi. 13; Lam. v. 14; Ps. cxxxvii. 2; Job xxx. 31). The more popular...
    HERESY AND HERETICS – ...of mourning after his death, but donned festive garments, and ate and drank and rejoiced (Sem. ii. 10; "Yad," Ebel, i. 5, 6; Yoreh De'ah, 345, 5). Scrolls of the Law, tefillin, and mezuzot written by a heretic...
    JOSHUA, THE SAMARITAN BOOK OF – ...take him alive before Moses. Ch. vi.-viii.: Moses' death; his testament; the mourning of the Israelites over him.Ch. ix.-xliii.: Main Part of the Book:
    PESAḤIM – ...company for which the paschal lamb is prepared (§§ 1-7); eating of the paschal lamb by a person in mourning and by a proselyte who has circumcised himself on the eve of the Passover (§ 8).Ch. ix.: Persons...
    SABBATH AND SUNDAY – ...posture, being at first a protest against mourning and ascetic rites (such as were forbidden on the Jewish Sabbath), came to be explained as suggestive of the Resurrection. Tertullian would have all work cease on...
    RACHEL – ...class="subheadinglevel2" name="anchor5">"Rachel Mourning for Her Children." Rachel's death was so deeply felt by Jacob that he considered it the greatest of all his sorrows (Ruth R. i. 3). He buried her on...
    REMBRANDT (REMBRANDT HARMENSZOON VAN RYN) – ...Mourning the Destruction of Jerusalem (1630), St. Petersburg, Count Sergei Stroganoff's collection. (34) Feast of Belshazzar (1634), England, Earl of Derby's collection, Knowsley House. (35) Daniel's...
    PALESTINE, LAWS AND CUSTOMS RELATING TO – ...fear she might commit infanticide, was enforced even if the child died within that period; in Babylon she was permitted to marry within that time if the child died.(11) In Palestine mourning was observed...
    KURDISTAN – ...the dead is usually conducted three or four hours after death by the "ḥebra ḳaddisha." During the week of mourning the mourners are visited by their neighbors, who bring food with them and share it with the...