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FESTIVALS – ...an adaptation of a Babylonian rite (Yer. 'Ab. Zarah iv.).The eighth day, Shemini 'Aẓeret, is treated as an independent holiday in regard to certain rabbinical prescriptions (mourning, for example). It is ...restrictions regarding work, mourning, the solemnization of marriages, and the like. See Ḥol ha-Mo'ed.The Biblical festivals readily fall into two groups:
ESTHER, APOCRYPHAL BOOK OF – ...ForeignChars> in Deut. ix. 26). The prayer closes with the supplication to save His people and turn their mourning into gladness (really "feasting"; comp. vi. 22 et seq.; see also Esth. ix. 17-19, where the prayer ...putting on mourning-robes ( , Judges viii. 5 [6]; Neh. ix. 1), strews ashes on her head (comp. Isa. iii. 24; Mal. ii. 3; II Sam. xiii. 19, commonly V05p239007...
HEZEKIAH – ...repentance (II Chron. xx. 12-19, xxxii. 25-26; Isa. xxxix).Hezekiah's death occurred, as stated above, after he had reigned twenty-nine years. He was buried with great honor amid universal mourning in the chief ...accorded to him after death consisted, according to R. Judah, in his bier being preceded by 36,000 men whose shoulders were bare in sign of mourning. According to R. Nehemiah, a scroll of the Law was placed on...
HIGH PRIEST – ...even of his parents; and he was not permitted, as a sign of mourning, to leave his hair disheveled, to expose it, or to rend his garments (Lev. xxi. 10 et seq.). According to Josephus ("Ant." xv. 3, § 1 ...name="anchor7">Restrictions. The high priest might not follow the bier of one in his own family who had died, nor leave the Temple or his house during the time of mourning. The people visited him to offer...
DEATH, VIEWS AND CUSTOMS CONCERNING – ...xlvii. 30), and feared only the idea of going down to Sheol mourning (ib. xxxvii. 35). To sleep and be at rest was the desire of the distressed (Job iii. 13-22). To die "in a good old age"was regarded as a ...Death-bed Scenes.1. Visiting the Sick. 2. Making the Confession. 3. Lighting the Candles. 4. Mourning.(From Bodenschatz, "Kirchliche...
SYMBOL – ...symbol of mourning; the miter was a blossom, and the priest might not uncover his head ("para'"; Lev. x. 6) lest thereby he should suggest the dropping of blossoms. The breeches symbolized the abolition of the ...Sabbatical year, and the year of jubilee was based on the number seven, as were the periods of purification and of mourning (Lev. iv. 6, 17; xxiii. 15; xxvi. 21; Deut. xv. 1; II Kings v. 14; Ps. cxix. 164).The number...
TOMBS – ...Cremation; Funeral Rites; mourning">Mourning.Bibliography:
  • LAW, CODIFICATION OF – ...ancient, venerable arrangement. The last seven sections in the second division ("Seder Mo'ed") of the work are most instructive for the systematizing of the Halakah. The prescription relating to mourning follows the ...section on the "Middle Days" (Ḥol ha-Mo'ed") because nearly the same labors are forbidden during the period of mourning as on "Ḥol ha-Mo'ed." The laws prohibiting the contamination of priests by contact with a corpse ...follow immediately upon the prescriptions relating to mourning, which likewise deal with the dead; then follows a second section dealing with the priests, namely the priestly blessing, which is important in the...
    CONFERENCES, RABBINICAL – ...made on vital subjects, such as the Sabbath, the holidays, circumcision, and mourning customs. The conference expressed itself on the Sabbath question to the effect that the restoration of the solemn observance of ...subheadinglevel2" name="anchor8">Mourning Customs. The conference gave expression to some decided views on traditional mourning customs. It declared that such practises as the rending of the garments, allowing the...
    POETRY – ...several times in his utterances (Jer. ix. 20, xiii. 18 et seq.). He refers here expressly to the "meḳonenot" (the mourning women) who in the East still chant the death-song to the trembling tone of the pipe ...praise like Ps. xviii., xxiv., cxxvi., etc. Other lyrics express mourning. First among these are the dirges proper for the dead, as the ḳinah on the death of Saul and Jonathan (II Sam. i. 19-27); that on Abner's ...death (ib. iii. 33 et seq.); and all psalms of mourning, as, e.g., the expressions of sorrow of sufferers (Ps. xvi., xxii., xxvii., xxxix.), and the expressions of penitence of sinners (ib. vi., xxxii., xxxviii...
    ADAM, BOOK OF – ...a lapse of six days—that is, after the mourning week of Adam—as the (shib'ah) may consist, according to Talmudic law, of six days only and a few moments of the...
    BAREHEADEDNESS – ...the head-tire upon him while mourning for his wife. In this sense the Septuagint interprets the words addressed to the priests (Lev. x. 6), "Uncover not your heads" (so also A. V., while the real meaning is, as...
    ALT-OFEN – ...Rabbi Moses Münz died, after a short illness, and before the close of the year of mourning intriguing for the vacant post began. A large majority of the congregation elected Hirsch Heller, called "Ḥarif" (sagacious...
    ALTSCHUL, ALTSCHULER, ALTSCHUELER – ...Grievous Mourning (Steinschneider, "Cat. Bodl." cols. 550, 884; "Serapeum," ix. 315, 344; Wolf, "Bibl. Hebr." ii. 1320).8. Eleazar b. Abraham Ḥanok Perles Altschul: Editor and author; died in Prague between...
    ANAN BEN DAVID – ...with the exception of the flesh of the deer and the dove—in token of mourning for the destruction of the Temple at Jerusalem.(3) The Mohammedan theologian, Abu Ḥanifah, who gave Anan such successful...
    ASENATH – ...to exchange her garments of mourning for garments of beauty—for as a pure virgin she needs no veil—and then announces to her that "from that day on she should be reborn, while eating the blessed bread of life...
    CÆSAREA – ...trickled water, as if they were mourning for him (Eusebius, "Hist. Eccl." viii. 9), the Cuthæans declared, to spite the Jews, that it was because the columns were out of repair (Yer. 'Ab. Zarah 42c; M. Ḳ. 25b). A...
    FASTING AND FAST-DAYS – ...these varying opinions.In Biblical Times. In olden times fasting was instituted as a sign of mourning (I Sam. xxxi. 13; II Sam. i. 12), or when danger...
    FOLK-LORE – ...SchlagenKissingKnotsKorahLag ba-'OmerLilithLots, Books ofLulabMagicMarriageMessiahMirrorMourning
    ENOCH, BOOKS OF (Ethiopic and Slavonic) – ...wonderful singing creatures which wait upon the sun, namely, phenixes and chalcidri; a singing host of angels.(e: xviii.): The fifth heaven: the watchers ("gregori"=ἐγρή-γοροι), silent and mourning for their fallen...
    ESDRAS, BOOKS OF – ...Vision of a woman mourning for her only son. Esdras pictures to her the desolation of Zion.Suddenly instead of the woman appears a "builded city." Uriel explains that the woman represents Zion.Fifth Vision...
    GAMALIEL II – ...had come to be almost unbearable; and it subsequently became the custom to devote to the memory of Gamaliel one of the goblets of wine drunk in the house of mourning (Ket. 8b).Of Gamaliel's children, one...
    HAFṬARAH – ...for the three Sabbaths of mourning before the Ninth of Ab and for the three Sabbaths of consolation after the Ninth of Ab, which have no connection with the section from the Torah, are later, though probably of...
    HAGGADAH (SHEL PESAḤ) – ...and magnify Him who hath done for us and for our fathers all these wonders, who hath led us forth from slavery to freedom, from sorrow to joy, from mourning to feasting, from darkness to full light, from bondage...
    SAMUEL – ...Samuel and Saul (xv. 34-35). Mourning for Saul, Samuel was bidden by Yhwh to go to Jesse, the Beth-lehemite, one of whose sons was chosen to be king instead of Saul (xvi. 4). Fearing lest Saul might detect...
    MEÏR OF ROTHENBURG (MEÏR B. BARUCH) – ...and subsequent examination ("bediḳah") of animals, in manuscript in the Bodleian Library, Oxford (Neubauer, "Cat. Bodl. Hebr. MSS." Nos. 1171, 2275). (5) "Hilkot Abelut," or "Hilkot Semaḥot," on mourning customs...
    LITURGY – ...ib. ix. 1). One should say, even in the house of mourning, "Blessed be the Merciful One who granteth good things" ("Baruk ha-Ṭob weha-Meṭib"). Akiba, however, says, "Blessed be the Just Judge" ("Baruk ...mourning, and at betrothals, weddings, etc., are mentioned, there are no indications that they were regarded as exercising any material influence on persons or things, i.e., that they were sacramental as the...
    BARUCH, APOCALYPSE OF (Syriac) – ...by the Syrians and before them by the Greeks as "holy beings" instead of "holy animals." In. lvi. 6 it is said that the fall of man brought mourning, sorrow, misery, and boastfulness into the world. The term...
    ARABIA – ...square, as a protection from the flying sand (M. Ḳ. 24a; Mishnah Kelim xxix. 1; compare commentary of Hai Gaon). Among the Jews, however, this covering of the face was customary only as a sign of mourning (M...
    CAPITAL PUNISHMENT – ...11).No execution is attended with posthumous indignities, except that the usual mourning ceremonies are not observed (Sifra, Shemini, Introduction, 28; Sem. ii. 7; Sanh. vi. 6), and in the case of the...