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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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GRAVESTONES – ...tombstones">See Tombstones....
TOMBSTONES – ...tombstones with inscriptions commemorating the status of the deceased. These epitaphs were written in Greek or Latin in the first centuries of the common era, and began with the name of the deceased or with the ...by the Messiah to announce the resurrection of the dead. Except for the presence of these symbols, the Jewish tombstones of the first centuries of the common era could not be distinguished from those of the ...inscribing Hebrew epitaphs on tombstones first became general among the Jews in Europe. The oldest example known is a gravestone of Brindisi dated 832. It is true that Jacob Mölln (MaHaRIL) asserts that in his lifetime...
RAUDNITZ – ...ancient cemetery was situated near the present Kapuzinergarten, where tombstones with Jewish inscriptions have been found. These are preserved in the Podripské Muscum. In the old cemetery in the former ghetto there ...are more than 1,500 tombstones, including many of the seventeenth century, and several tombs of martyrs. The new cemetery was opened in 1896. In 1853 a large temple was built, the services in which are conducted ...with choir and organ. The ḥebra ḳaddisha is mentioned on tombstones as early as the seventeenth century.The earliest known rabbi of Raudnitz is Rabbi Nehemiah (d. 1637), who officiated here for more than...
SCHLETTSTADT – ...largest in the country; tombstones bearing inscriptions of the year 1400 have been found. During the time that Jews were forbidden to live in the city and during the various revolutions after 1350 most of the ...tombstones were carried off and used in building houses, barns, and fences.From the middle of the fourteenth century until the commencement of the nineteenth no Jew was allowed to pass the night within the town...
TAMAN – ...about sixty tombstones which once marked Jewish graves. The inscriptions on two of these tombstones were partly deciphered; on the others only single Hebrew letters could be made out. All of them bear Jewish...
CARNABAT – ...Town of eastern Rumelia or southern Bulgaria. According to tradition, Jews first established themselves at Carnabat about 1580; but the oldest tombstones decipherable bear date of 1686. Eliezer of Calo was...
JEWNIN, ABRAHAM JONAH B. ISAIAH – ...author of "Dibre Ḥefeẓ," a collection of essays on Scriptural texts (Odessa, 1872); "Naḥalat 'Olamim," a collection of the important inscriptions on the tombstones in the Jewish cemetery of Warsaw (Warsaw, 1882...
FIRKOVICH, ABRAHAM B. SAMUEL (Aben ReSheF) – ...history of the Karaites. In 1839 Firkovich began excavations in the ancient cemetery of Chufut-Kale, and unearthed many old tombstones, some of which, he claimed, belonged to the first centuries of the common era ...molds taken from tombstones, which was acquired from Firkovich by the Imperial Library of St. Petersburg, on the recommendation of Professor Chwolson in 1859, was declared by some authorities to consist partly or ...belief, after considering all controversies, that Firkovich succeeded in demonstrating that some of the Jewish tombstones from Chufut-Kale date back to the seventh century, and that seemingly modern forms of eulogy...
FLECKELES – ...Felkeles" and "Falkenes") on old tombstones in the Jewish cemetery of Prague (see Hock, "Die Familien Prags," 1892, s.v. "Presburg"). The only known attempt to construct a family tree was made by R. Eleazar...
KOSTEL (PODIVIN) – ...synagogue was built about 150 years ago. The earliest tombstones are dated 1690.Kostel is one of the congregations of Moravia which possess the rights of a township. With its branch at Eisgrub—the summer...
YARMOUTH – ...the first to be interred there, in the following year. The cemetery is in the Alma road and contains sixteen tombstones and one headstone, all bearing inscriptions in Hebrew or English.Among other relics...
ASOLO – ...services of this small congregation were as well arranged as they could be. The Asolo Jews possessed a cemetery, of which only two tombstones remain now preserved in the public gallery. There were at least four Jewish...
CHUFUT-KALE – ...manuscripts, pretended to have unearthed at the cemetery of Chufut-Kale tombstones dating from the year 6 of the common era, and to have discovered the tomb of Sangari, which is still shown by the Karaites. According to...
PRESBYTER – ...corresponds to the Latin "seniores" ("Codex Justiniani," i. 9, 15). Thus it appears that there is no uniformity even in the official designations.The title of "presbyter" occurs frequently on Jewish tombstones of...
KERTCH – ...shows that a Jewish community and synagogue existed in Kertch in 80-81 B.C. A number of tombstones unearthed near Kertch in 1867 bear the representation of a "menorah," with Greek inscriptions, showing...
MAGGID (STEINSCHNEIDER), HILLEL NOAH – ...not content with cutting epitaphs on tombstones and monuments, he occasionally composed inscriptions. He early joined the Progressionists of Wilna, among whom were Fuenn, Lebensohn, and M. A. Günzburg. He...
WIENER-NEUSTADT – ...first wife of a certain Shalom. Tombstones from the years 1286, 1353, 1359, and 1370 have also been preserved.During the time of the Black Death the Jews of Wiener-Neustadt were fully protected; but during...
PRERAU – ...still result in occasional discoveries of old Jewish tombstones.In 1511 George Lashinsky donated to the city hospital 44 Bohemian groschen, the amount of a yearly tax paid by the Jews from the produce of ...Pollak.The old synagogue was rebuilt in 1898; the silver ornaments on the Torah roll date from 5467 (=1707). There are two cemeteries; the older one, situated in the Wurmgasse, contains tombstones over two...
PARNAS – ...Angevin England," p. 371). On the tombstones of Prague "parnas" is rarely found, and then always in addition to such synonyms as "manhig," "gabbay," "primus," "alluf," "ḳaẓin" (see Hock-Kaufmann, "Die Familien Prags ...Presburg, 1892, passim). On the tombstones of Frankfort-on-the-Main the first mention occurs in 1539, which is hardly accidental, although of old tombstones comparatively few have been preserved, and these have...
BAIERSDORF – ...adjoining the synagogue was used by the Jews of the surrounding district extending over many miles: it contains many tombstones, some of which are said to date from the beginning of the fifteenth century. A number of...
BELMONTE – ...a number of the tombstones of this family can still be seen in the Portuguese-Jewish cemetery at Altona. Guido was the ancestor of the Ximenes Belmontes. His grandchildren were probably Don Andree de Belmonte...
BOSNIA – ...historians, the first Jews settled in Bosnia in 1575; Don Joseph Nasi and his aunt, Dona Gracia, using their influence with the sultan Suleiman the Magnificent to that effect. The inscriptions on some tombstones at...
MONASTIR – ...fires. Down to the beginning of the last century the Monastir Jews put no inscriptions on their tombstones.The following have occupied the rabbinate of Monastir: Joseph Jacob Israel (c. 1768); Joseph...
TARRAGONA – ...for some time as rabbi there; and a certain D. Benjamin was city physician. Two tombstones with Hebrew inscriptions, dating from the years 1300 and 1302, have recently been found at Tarragona: one (1½ meters wide...
ZNAIM – ...worship was formed in 1866, and two years later a cemetery was acquired, where were deposited the remains of those buried in the old cemetery (confiscated in 1454), and also three tombstones from the same ancient...
CEMETERY – ...14442-tombstones">Tombstones, though not unknown, were exceptional. In the Middle Ages the Jewish cemetery was as a rule situated at the extreme end of the ghetto, the hospital and other communal buildings ...furious attacks on the dead in their graves and by a wanton spoliation of the tombstones. Graveyards, though regarded as asylums by the pagan Roman and Teuton alike, were not sacred enough in the eyes of the numerous ...Most of the tombstones were scattered about the cities and used for building and other purposes; and only occasionally were the lines of an inscription recorded by the historian. There is consequently little hope...
PALEOGRAPHY – ...tombstones. Comp. De Rossi in "Bulletino di Archeologia Cristiana," 1867, v. 3, 16). (4) Via Appia Pignatelli: Catacomb very carefully explored in 1885 by N. Müller, who has published a description of it ("Il ...Inscriptions," 1885, xiii. 146). Salerno ("C. I. L." x. 316, No. 3492). Syracuse (Orsi, in "Römische Quartalschrift," 1900, xiv. 194 [two Greek tombstones]; "C. I. G." iv. 585, No. 9895, dedication in Greek verse of part ...of a synagogue). Tarentum: Late tombstones (Fiorelli, in "Notizie degli Scavi," 1882, pp. 386-387; 1883, pp. 179-180).At Venosa. Venosa: Jewish catacombs...
TOMBS – ...protected against trampling (Yer. B. B. 15c). Forms of Tombstones from the Old Cemetery at Frankfort-on-the-Main.(From ...covers, however, must not be confounded with the tombstones erected on graves in honor of the dead. The Sephardic Jews lay these tombstones flat on the graves; but since these monuments are erected to be seen, the ...upright position, preferred by the German Jews, is the more normal one. In Biblical Hebrew the tombstones are called (II Kings xxiii. 17; Jer. xxxi. 21; Ezek. xxxix. 15...
CONSTANCE, DISTRICT OF THE LAKE OF – ...exterminated by the Flagellants (Feb. 11), while the tombstones of their cemetery were used in building the cathedral and the hospital. Jews were again admitted in 1378. They...
PHILIPPOPOLIS – ...the local cemetery are the tombstones of Israel Aobi (d. 1690), a learned chief rabbi of the community, and of Rabbi Solomon Safir (d. 1716).About the year 1779 the Jewish community of Philippopolis...