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APOSTLE AND APOSTLESHIP – ...Apostle (Greek ἀπόστολοσ, from ἀποστήλλειν, "to send"), a person delegated for a certain purpose; the same as sheliaḦ or sheluaḦ in Hebrew, one invested with representative power. "Apostoloi ...all likelihood had received no other mission or Apostleship than that of working in the field of philanthropy among the Jewish community of Rome.The meaning of the term "Apostle," still used in its old ...sense (Phil. ii. 25) of "Epaphroditus, your apostle [delegate] who ministers to my wants," was, however, already changed in the Christian Church during Paul's time. It became the specific term for the one sent...
SAUL OF TARSUS – ...Antioch. The two traveled together as collectors of charity for the poor of the Jerusalem church (ib. xi. 30, xv. 2; apostle-and-apostleship">see Apostle), and as preachers of the ...uncalled for and unpardonable. In reality Paul had little more than the name of apostle in common with the actual disciples of Jesus. His field of work was chiefly, if not exclusively, among the Gentiles; he looked ...frequently than any other apostle he was imprisoned, punished with stripes, and in peril of death on land and sea; five times he received the thirtynine stripes in the synagogue, obviously for some public transgression...
BLOCH, MATTITHIAH ASHKENAZI – ...Cabalist; lived at Jerusalem in the seventeenth century. A blind adherent and indefatigable apostle of Shabbethai Ẓebi, he was appointed by him one of his prophets charged with the announcement of the...
AARON MOSES BEN MORDECAI – ...arch-apostle of the cabalistic school of Luria. Aaron Moses states (l.c. p. 46a) that he was the author also of a commentary on the Midrash Tanḥuma, entitled "Zebed Ṭob" (A Goodly Gift). This has not...
BREASTPLATE – ...Isaiah (lix. 17) and of the apostle Paul (Eph. vi. 14).J. Jr.BARNABAS, JOSES – ...The "Apostle." One of the Apostles, of the tribe of Levi and of the country of Cyprus. In Acts iv. 36 his name is given as "Bar Naḥamah" (son of consolation ...companion of Paul in his journeys as apostle—that is, delegate commissioned to bring the charity collection to the mother-church at Jerusalem; wherefore the two together are called "apostles" (Acts xiv. 4, 14; see Apostle). He joined the early Christian community by selling his property and laying the proceeds "at the apostles' feet" (ib. iv. 37). According to Acts ix. 27...
BAR JESUS – ...of Emesa. The same Simon Magus occurs in the story of Peter the Apostle (Acts viii. 20-24), of which the Paul story obviously forms a counterpart. New Testament critics therefore doubt the authenticity of the...
ḤAYYIM MAL'AK – ...traveled to Turkey to learn there the Shabbethaian doctrines, which name was afterward changed by his followers to "Mal'ak" (apostle). But it seems from Ḥakam Ẓebi's answer to Saul, rabbi of Cracow (ib.), that...
DIDEROT, DENIS – ...French philosopher and encyclopedist; born at Langres Oct. 5, 1713; died at Paris July 30, 1784. Although, like all the French encyclopedists, an apostle of tolerance, Diderot does not seem to have had much...
ANARCHISM – ...generation of the "seventies." The anarchist movement had exhausted itself in Russia by 1881, and had given to the western world the most noted apostle of modern communistic Anarchism, Prince Peter Kropotkin.
APOSTOLÉ, APOSTOLI – ...to the various countries. apostle-and-apostleship">See Apostle and Apostleship.These teachers may at the same time have conveyed to the Jews outside of Palestine the...
ARETAS – ...attempted to imprison Paul the apostle while the latter was on his missionary journey (II Cor. xi. 32). Since in a parallel passage (Acts ix. 23 et seq.) the Jews of Damascus are mentioned as lying in wait for...
CORINTH – ...apostle Paul preached Christianity in the synagogue of Corinth for eighteen months, and baptized the archisynagogue Crispus (I Cor. i. 14); but he was reviled by the other Jews and accused before the governor, Junius...
CYRIL – ...Apostle of the Slavonians and author of the Slavonic alphabet (Cyrillitza), which is probably a modification of an older Slavonic alphabet (Glagola); born at Salonica about 820; died in Rome Feb. 14 869...
IBN VIVES AL-LORQUI (OF LORCA), JOSHUA BEN JOSEPH – ...governor of Aragon and lived in Saragossa; this son of the "apostle of Tortosa," as De los Rios calls him ("Hist." iii. 264), took part in the rebellion against Pedro Arbucs, was arrested with other Maranos, and, in...
FELIX (ANTONIUS FELIX) – ...Eccl."ii. 21). His term of office was practically a reign of anarchy; for even the high-priestly families were at war with the lower priests ("Ant." xx. 8, § 8; "Vita," § 3).During his term, the apostle...
ETHNARCH – ...permission of Augustus not having been obtained, no ethnarch could be appointed. At Damascus the Nabatæan king Aretas IV. had an ethnarch at the time of the apostle Paul (II Cor. xi. 32); yet there is no reason for...
EDESSA – ...member was Abgar VII., son of Izates, son of Helena of Adiabene. When Addai, the apostle, came to Edessa, he is said to have stayed at the house of a Jew named Tobias, and to...
LESSING, GOTTHOLD EPHRAIM – ...he stigmatized the dislike of the Gentiles for the followers of the Jewish religion as a stupid prejudice. He went herein further than any other apostle of toleration before or after him. The full development...
LORD'S SUPPER – ...context, and contradictory to ib. x. 4) in which the apostle rather oddly declares that he had received from Jesus by inspiration the statement that he had instituted the eucharist on the night of his betrayal...
NEW MOON – ...proclamation of New Moon to the Jews of the various lands were given mysterious watchwords alluding to the Messianic hope. Such was the one given by Judah ha-Nasi (R. H. 25a; apostle-and ...apostleship">see Apostle; New Moon, Blessing of the). The waxing and waning of the moon reminded the sages of Israel's renewal (Pirḳe R. El. li.), especially...
SIMON MAGUS – ...doubted by many critics, especially by Baur and his school, who held that he was a caricature of the "Apostle of the Gentiles." Such a view must, however, be regarded as a grave critical aberration (Harnack ...to be baptized by the apostle Philip; but, owing to his greediness, he relapsed into sorcery. While this story is legendary, Justin relates ("Apologia," i. 26, 56) that he was born in Gitta, a Samaritan village...
BAGRATUNI – ...Saria, was put to death in his presence; and then he and his whole house foreswore Judaism.When Thaddai, the disciple of the apostle Thomas, came to the city of Edessa, he stopped at the house of the Jewish...
BARUCH YAVAN – ...articles/6316-frankists">Frankists, or followers of Jacob Frank, the reckless apostle of Shabbethai Ẓebi, instructed his agents to seize copies of the Talmud and to bring them to Kamenetz-Podolsk, Baruch implored...
BEN TEMALION – ...apostle Bartholomew that he went to India and there freed the daughter of the king from a devil which possessed her. Instead of accepting a reward, he caused a devil to enter an idol and then bade it leave the statue...
CLERMONT-FERRAND – ...third century of the common era. It is said that the first apostle of Auvergne, St. Austremoine (Stremonius), was killed about 286, by order of Lucius, the Jewish governor of Issoire, by a Jew, the owner of the...
GISCALA – ...gates the second day afterward, and Titus had the walls razed and the fugitive inhabitants massacred (67 C.E.; ib. iv. 2, §§ 2-5). According to Jerome, the apostle Paul's parents lived at Giscala...
JOSE BEN JOSE – ...Literaturgesch." p. 646) by an unknown author—said to be the apostle Peter—belongs to this 'abodah. The 'abodah , included in Spanish rituals, was written before Jose's time, and...
JUDAS ISCARIOT – ...choice of an apostle naturally caused great perplexity to his followers; and consequently the Gospels present the facts of the betrayal as well as the character of Judas from partizan points of view and in different...
NAZARENES – ...Nazarenes therefore rejected Paul, the apostle to the Gentiles. Some accordingly declared even that the Nazarenes were Jews, as, for instance, Theodoret ("Hær. Fab." ii. 2: οἱ δὲ Ναζωραῖοι Ἰουδαῖοί εἰσι); that they...