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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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ENGLAND – ...The southern portion of the island of Great Britain. Owing to the dominance of the capital city in England, most of the episodes of Jewish history connected with that country occurred at Pre-Expulsion Period: The Jews Came in with the Normans. There is no evidence of Jews residing in England before the ...Roman market and thus brought about the Christianizing of England. William of Malmesbury ("Gesta Rerum Anglorum," ed. Duffy, p. 500) distinctly states that William the Conqueror brought the Jews from Rouen to...
BIRMINGHAM, ENGLAND – Chief town of Warwickshire. The Jewish community consists (1902) of a population of about 4,000, having grown to this number from 140 families (700 souls) in 1851. The first Jewish settlement is believed to have taken place
JEW BILL – ...england">See England....
JEWISH HISTORICAL SOCIETY OF ENGLAND – ...later, when a meeting was held in London, at the club of the Maccabæans (June 3, 1893), and the Jewish Historical Society of England was constituted for the purpose of "conducting researches into the history of the...
ACTS OF PARLIAMENT RELATING TO THE JEWS OF ENGLAND – ...The legislature of England expresses its will in formal documents known as Acts, and thus the record of the legislative enactments concerning the Jews of England is to be found in the collected Acts known ...as the "Statutes of the Realm." As Parliament, in the modern sense of the term, had scarcely begun to exist before the Jews were expelled from England in 1290, there are only a few references to the Jews in the ...after the return of the Jews to England many Acts relate to their position with regard to marriage laws, etc., and especially to their legal disabilities. The most interesting of these are the two Acts removing and...
YULY (YULEE), SAMUEL – ...Moorish envoy to England; born in Mogador, Morocco, at the end of the eighteenth century; died at Portsea, England, in Jan., 1872. He was connected with the Guedella family, agents for the Sultan of Morocco ...and one of the wealthiest merchant firms in Mogador. In 1820 Yuly went to England, as the accredited representative of the Sultan of Morocco, with letters to the British government. He afterward resided ...permanently in England, but kept up a trading connection with Mogador. See Morocco.J.
ROBERT OF BURY ST. EDMUNDS – ...Alleged martyr of a blood accusation at Bury St. Edmunds, Suffolk, England, in 1181. No details are known of the circumstances under which he was created a martyr; but the expulsion of the Jews from Bury St ...Edmunds ten years later was doubtless connected with the accusation.Bibliography: Jacobs, Jews of Angevin England...
ARONSTEIN, PHILIPP – ...Academy of Münster, whence he was graduated as doctor of philosophy. After having taught at different schools in England and Germany, he at present (1902) holds the position of Oberlehrer at the Progymnasium at ...DickensStudien," 1896), "Englische Studien" ("John Marsten als Dramatiker," 1894; "Die Entwicklung der Lokalverwaltung in England," 1895), "Neuere Sprachen" ("England um die Mitte des 18ten Jahrhunderts," 1895), and has ...written principally upon education in England, and English history and literature. Aronstein's chief independent works are: "Benjamin Disraeli's Leben und Dichterische Werke," 1895, and "Die Entwicklung der Höheren...
MACHIM, MASAHOD COHEN – ...Moorish envoy to England, in 1813, from Mulai Sulaiman, Emperor of Morocco (1794-1822), in whose reign Christian slavery was abolished in Morocco. His son Meïr Cohen Machim visited England...
VAN OVEN, ABRAHAM – ...Physician; died in England 1778; grandson of Samuel Basan, who, fleeing from Spain at the beginning of the eighteenth century, settled in Oven, Holland, whence the patronymic was derived. Abraham Van Oven ...received his medical diploma at Leyden Dec. 14, 1759. After residing for some time at Hamburg, he emigrated to England, and, settling in London, acquired an extensive and remunerative practise among the Jewish...
ADLER – ...A family that came originally from Frankfort, but which has been connected for more than a century with the chief rabbinate of England. Tebele Schiff, who was chief rabbi of London, was, it is true, only ...connected by marriage with Baer Adler, the two having married sisters. But there is little doubt that the family associations thus created with England had something to do with the candidature of N. M. Adler for the ...chief rabbinate of England in 1844. Though a Frankfort family—and thus related, directly or indirectly, with the Worms and Rothschilds—they have been, this century, more closely connected with Hanover, especially...
BERGTHEIL, JONAS – ...Pioneer of Natal, South Africa; born in England about 1815; died 1902; emigrated to South Africa about 1844, at a time when the resources of the country were scarcely known, and the mode of living extremely ...reelected and resigning office only on his return to England in 1866. During a visit to England in 1847, he advocated, unsuccessfully, emigration to the Cape; then, passing to Germany, his arguments were more ...acres, when land was estimated at the rate of threepence an acre.Returning to England in 1866, Bergtheil identified himself with the communal institutions in London, serving as warden of the Bayswater...
BENAS, BARON L. – ...English communal worker; born in Liverpool, England, 1844. Has been throughout his life a leading figure in the Liverpool Old Hebrew congregation, of which he is one of the trustees.During the ...Russian emigration of 1882 he helped to found the Liverpool branch of the Russo-Jewish committee, on which was thrown most of the organizing work connected with the emigration from Russia through England into the...
ASSIZE OF JEWRY – ...An expression used in the thirteenth century in England for the laws and customs regulating the relations between Jews and Christians in that country, and especially binding upon the decisions of the
CARVAJAL, ANTONIO FERNANDEZ – ...He dealt in all kinds of merchandise, including gunpowder, wine, hides, pictures, cochineal, and especially corn and silver, and is reported to have brought to England, on the average, £100,000 worth of silver ...per annum.In the early days of his residence in England, Carvajal used to attend mass at the Spanish ambassador's chapel, and in 1645 was informed against for not attending church; but the House of Lords ...When Manasseh ben Israel came to England in 1655 to petition Parliament for the return of the Jews to England, Carvajal, though his own position was secured, associated himself with the petition; and he was one of...
FRANKLIN, BENJAMIN A. – ...Jamaica merchant; born at Manchester, England, 1811; died at Kingston, Jamaica, April 26, 1888. He went to the island about the year 1837, and engaged in business, becoming a magistrate and consul for ...for many years chairman of the Hebrew National Schools, and aided in establishing the Kingston Sailors' Home (in 1864). After returning for ten years to England, he went back to Jamaica and died there.
ABRAHAM BEN YOM-ṬOB OF TUDELA – ...Commentator, who flourished in Spain about 1300. He was the author of a commentary on Baba Batra, which is still extant in manuscript in the Bodleian Library, Oxford, England.
BENJAMIN, SIMEON – ...England.Bibliography: Zedner, Catalogue, p. 87; Jacobs and Wolf, Bibliotheca, No...
BISHOP OF THE JEWS – ...Title given to an official of the Jews in the Rhine country and in England in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. At Cologne it appears to have been used as an equivalent to "parnas," or warden of the ...synagogue. In England the parnas is mentioned under that name, and there appear to have been in each large community three, and three only, of these "episcopi" (for example, in the communities of London and Lincoln ...simply equivalent to "Cohen."Besides the bishops, there was in England a Presbyter, who appears to have been a kind of chief rabbi, associated chiefly with the treasury...
JEWELL, JACOB – ...Owner of the largest traveling circus in England; died Sept., 1884; tenant, under W. Holland, of North Woolwich Gardens for about fifteen years. Jewell attended the English and Continental faire for more...
COHEN, LEVY BARENT – ...English financier and communal worker; born at Amsterdam 1740; died in England 1808; son of Barent Cohen, a wealthy merchant of Amsterdam. He removed to England with his brother, and by 1778 had developed a ...married; and his chief claim to remembrance lies in having been the founder of the Cohen family in England. Through the distinguished marriages which his children contracted, nearly all the leading Jewish families in ...England are connected with him. His daughter Hannah became the wife of Nathan Mayer Rothschild, the founder of the firm in New Court; the second daughter, Judith, married Sir Moses Montefiore; the third daughter...
GAUNSE (Gaunz, Ganse, Gans), JOACHIM (Jeochim, Jochim) – ...certainly shared his scientific interests. He is first mentioned in his professional capacity at Keswick, Cumberland, in 1581, and he remained in England till the end of 1589. He introduced a new process for the ...miners were very active in England about this period. There is no doubt that England owed much to such immigrants in the mining industries (see Cunningham, "Alien Immigrants," p. 122).In Sept., 1589, in the ...Jewish Historical Society of England, iv., where all the documents are published.J.
ROSENTHAL, HARRY LOUIS – ...English exegete; born about 1860 at Vladislavov (Neustadt-Schirwindt), Poland. In 1869 he accompanied his mother and sisters to Manchester, England, where he was educated. Returning to Vladislavov in 1878...
SOEIRA, SAMUEL ABRAVANEL – ...Martinez Dormido to England for the purpose of presenting a petition to Oliver Cromwell for the readmission of Jews to England. On this occasion he is said to have received from the University of Oxford the degree of ...article published in Roest's "Letterbode." In May, 1655, Samuel returned to Amsterdam to persuade his father to go to England and personally lay his case before Cromwell. Manasseh ben Israel arrived in London in ...Mission to Oliver Cromwell; H. Adler, A Homage to Menasseh ben Israel, in Transactions of Jew. Hist. Soc. of England, i. 34, 39, 44, 48-54; M...
ROBLES, ANTONIO RODRIQUES DA – ...Geschichte der Juden in Portugal," p. 307). He settled in London and was connected with the West-Indian trade. In 1656, during the war between England and Spain, two of his ships, "The Two Brothers" and "The Tobias ...Jewish nation," and that he had come to England to shelter himself from the tyranny of Spain. He, however, admitted having attended mass in London; and the commissioners, on inquiring into the case, were doubtful as ...any Jew in England to deny his race or religion.Bibliography: L. Wolf, in Tr. Jew. Hist. Soc. Eng. i. 60-66, 77...
SHEṬAR – ...England and in Germany many of these bilingual deeds existed. The Latin form is generally known as the "starrum," derived from the Hebrew term. It has been conjectured that the Star Chamber at Westminster was so ...named because it was the repository of the "starra" of the English pre-expulsion Jews.For the most part in England the deeds acknowledging indebtedness were called in Latin "chartæ," or, later, "chirographs ...Barcelona about the beginning of the twelfth century, and were published under the title of "Sefer ha-Sheṭarot" (Berlin, 1898). For specimens of English sheṭarot see Jacobs, "Jews of Angevin England" (pp. 58, 76-77...
WORMS, BARON SOLOMON BENEDICT DE – ...English financier; born at Frankfort-on-the-Main Feb. 5, 1801; died at Brighton, England, Oct. 20, 1882; son of Benedict de Worms of Frankfort. He was taken to England at an early age, and eventually went ...efforts made by him and his brothers in developing the colony of Ceylon, Queen Victoria granted him and his heirs, by royal warrant of 1874, the right of using the title in England.
NORTHAMPTON – ...Capital of Northamptonshire, England. Jews were living there as early as 1180, when it is recorded that Samuel of Northampton, for obtaining a divorce from his wife, owed the king 5 marks. Four years later ...he made arrangements for the marriage of his son to the daughter of Margaret, a Jewess of London. When Richard I. returned from Germany, in 1194, he issued at Northampton a rescript to the Jews of England for a ...11d. They were thus second in point of numbers and fourth in point of contributions of all the Jews of England at that time. The community included Jews who had come from Bungay, Colchester, Nottingham, Stamford...
WINCHESTER – ...Ancient capital of England; county town of Hampshire. Jews appear to have settled there at an early date, one of the first entries in the pipe-rolls referring to a fine paid in 1160 by Gentill, a Jewess of ...street. The Jewry must have been a center of some importance, as Isaac of Chernigov was found there in 1182 (Jacobs, "Jews of Angevin England," p. 73). It has been conjectured that Moses b. Yom-Ṭob, who wrote the ...Darke Niḳḳud" now found in the rabbinic Bibles, lived at Winchester (ib. p. 124).When the massacres occurred in England (1189-1190), Winchester spared its Jews, though a couple of years later the...
COSTA, EMANUEL MENDEZ DA – ...from Normandy to reside in England about 1696, and in 1702 had married Esther da Costa, his first cousin. Emanuel Mendez da Costa was distinguished as a botanist, naturalist, philosopher, and collector of ...Society in Florence. His publications were: "A Natural History of Fossils" (at the time of its publication the author was esteemed the greatest master of the subject in England); "Elements of Conchology, or An ...the list of the original Jewish settlers in England was found. His collection of printed books, manuscripts, engravings, and drawings of natural history was sold by public auction after his death.