Name of a family of Polish and German rabbis; derived from "Liebeschitz," name of a town in Bohemia.

Aryeh Löb Lipschütz:

Austrian rabbi and author; lived in the second half of the eighteenth and in the first half of the nineteenth century; died in Brigul, Galicia, before 1849. He was the pupil of Aryeh Löb (author of "Ḳeẓot ha-Ḥoshen") and son-in-law of Moses Teitelbaum, rabbi at Ujhely. He held the office of rabbi in several cities in Galicia, and at last went to Brigul, where he remained till his death. He was the author of "Ari She-be-Ḥaburah" and "Geburot Ari," novellæ on Ketubot, mentioned in "'Emeḳ Berakah," by Joseph Saul Nathanson. Besides these works he wrote "Aryeh debe-'Ilai," containing novellæ on Ḳiddushin, Yoma, Menaḥot, Ḳinnim, and Niddah, as well as responsa on the four parts of the Shulḥan 'Aruk. This work was published in Lemberg.

  • Walden, Shem ha-Gedolim he-Ḥadash, i. 82, ii. 16;
  • Eliezer Cohen, Ḳin'at Soferim, p. 104b (note 1733), and p. 110a.
S. S. N. T. L.Baruch Isaac Lipschütz:

Son of Israel Lipschütz; born in Dessau; died in Berlin Dec. 18, 1877. He was at first rabbi at Landsberg, and then district rabbi in Mecklenburg-Schwerin, but was obliged to resign both positions in consequence of disagreements with his congregations. Thereafter he lived in private at Hamburg. He wrote "Torath Sch'muel, ein Erbauungsbuch für Israeliten" (Hamburg, 1867).

S. M. K.Baruch Mordecai b. Jacob Lipschitz (Libschitz):

Russian rabbi and author; born about 1810; died at Siedlce, Poland, March 30, 1885. At an early age he became known for his wide Talmudical learning; and later he ranked with the leading rabbinical authorities of his time. Rabbis from all parts applied to him for decisions in regard to difficult questions, and his responsa were characterized by clearness and sound sense. He officiated as rabbi for forty-three years in various cities, including Semiatitz, Wolkowisk, Novogrudek, and finally Siedlce, where he remained till his death.

Lipschitz was the author of: "Berit Ya'aḳob" (Warsaw, 1876-77), responsa on the four parts of the Shulḥan 'Aruk; "Bet Mordekai," sermons; "Minḥat Bikkurim," novellæ on the Shulḥan 'Aruk; and novellæ on the Jerusalem Talmud. The last three works remain in manuscript.

  • Ha-Ẓefirah, 1885, No. 14;
  • Ha-Asif, 1885, p. 758;
  • H. N. Steinschneider, 'Ir Wilna, p. 164.
S. S. N. T. L.Eliezer ben Solomon Lipschütz: Execution of Lippold, 1573.(From a contemporary copperplate.)

German rabbi; died at Neuwied about 1748. At the age of thirty he became rabbi at Ostrow, where he gathered many pupils about him. Several years later he accepted a rabbinate elsewhere, but differences with his congregation soon compelled him to resign. He wandered about until finally he went to Cracow, where he obtained a rabbinate through the influence of his wife's uncle, Simon Jolles. There, too, he had many enemies, and on the death of Jolles he was obliged to leave Cracow. After some time he became rabbi at Neuwied, where he remained until his death. He wrote "Heshib R. Eli'ezer we-Siaḥ ha-Sadeh," responsa, published together with a number of responsa by his son Israel Lipschütz (Neuwied, 1749), and "Dammeseḳ Eli'ezer," novellæ (to Shulḥan 'Aruk, Yoreh De'ah and Ḥoshen Mishpaṭ.) and responsa, among the latter being some written by his brother Ephraim Lipschütz (ib. 1749).

  • Preface to Heshib R. Eli'ezer we-Siaḥ ha-Sadeh;
  • Dembitzer, Kelilat Yofi, ii. 133, Cracow, 1893.
S. M. K.Gedaliah ben Israel Lipschütz:

Rabbi at Obrzizk, near Posen; flourished in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries (d. 1826). He was the author of the following works: "Regel Yesharah" (Dyhernfurth, 1776), explanations of Rashi and tosafot to the section Neziḳin, notes on Abot de-Rabbi Natan and on the small tractates of the Talmud, with two supplements treating of weights, measures, and geometry in the Talmud, and explaining the calculations found in Kilayim iii., v.; "Ḥumre Matnita" (Berlin, 1784), divided into six parts ("ḳinnim"), containing a commentary on the Talmud, explanations of all the foreign words found in the Talmud, a commentary on Asheri (Rosh), notes on Alfasi, a commentary on Targum Onḳelos, and explanation of the difficult mishnayot; "Keneset Yisrael" (Breslau, 1818), notes on the Mishnah and on various Talmudical subjects, extracted from several works left by Gedaliah in manuscript, and published by his son Israel Lipschütz.

  • Steinschneider, Cat. Bodl. col. 1003;
  • Fürst, Bibl. Jud. ii. 275;
  • Fuenn, Keneset Yisrael, s.v.
S. S. I. Br.Gedaliah ben Solomon Lipschütz:

Polish scholar; lived at Lublin in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. He was a relative and also a pupil of Meïr of Lublin, whose responsa he edited, adding to them an index (Venice, 1618). He wrote a commentary to Albo's "'Iḳḳarim," entitled "'Eẓ Shatul" (ib. 1618). This commentary may be considered a double one; in "Shorashim" the commentator explains the text of Albo, while in the part called "'Anafim" he gives an exposition of Albo's views, comparing them with the views of other philosophers. In the preface, Lipschütz says that he composed the commentary in his twenty-sixth year, but that for various reasons he could not publish it. Later, at the request of friends, he revised his work, which revision he completed at Lublin, Feb. 12, 1617. He compiled an index to the Biblical and Midrashic passages in Albo's text.

  • Fuenn, Keneset Yisrael, p. 213;
  • Fürst, Bibl. Jud. ii. 230;
  • Nissenbaum, Le-Ḳorot ha-Yehudim be-Lublin, p. 46.
S. S. M. Sel.Ḥayyim ben Moses Lipschütz:

Polish rabbi of the seventeenth century; born at Ostrog about 1620. He wrote "Derek Ḥayyim" (Sulzbach, 1702), a book containing prayers and ritual laws for persons who are traveling, published by some of his pupils. Although the book contains prayers which show that the author was a follower of Shabbethai Ẓebi, it is interesting to know that it had the approbation of eight of the most renowned rabbis of the time.

  • Wiener, Ḳehillat Mosheh, p. 297;
  • Emden, Torat ha-Ḳena'ot, p. 144, Lemberg, 1870;
  • Steinschneider, Cat. Bodl. col. 830.
D. B. Fr.Israel Lipschütz:

Son of Eliezer Lipschütz; rabbi at Cleve. There he became notorious in connection with a "geṭ" controversy which attracted the attention of a large number of contemporary Jewish scholars. The dispute arose over a divorce granted by him in August, 1766, which was declared invalid and which the rabbinate of Frankfort-on-the-Main opposed with such persistence and vehemence that it became a "cause célèbre." Israel Lipschütz was severely criticized and stoutly defended. Toward his own defense he published (Cleve, 1770) seventy-three similar decisions, under the title "Or Yisrael," to counterbalance the "Or ha-Yashar" published by Simon Kopenhagen in the previous year at Amsterdam.

  • M. Horovitz, Frankfurter Rabbiner, iii. 67 et seq., Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1884.
Israel Lipschütz:

Son of Gedaliah, Lipschütz; born 1782; died Sept. 19, 1860. He was rabbi first at Dessau and then at Danzig. He led the life of an ascetic, frequently fasted three days in succession, and studied incessantly. He wrote "Tif'eret Yisrael," a commentary on the Mishnah, in which he applied to the orders a nomenclature of his own: Zera'im he called "Zera' Emunah"; Ṭohorot, "Ṭa'am wa-Da'at" (Hanover, 1830); Neziḳin, "Kos Yeshu'ot" (Danzig, 1845). His ethical will ("Ẓawwa'ah"; 1861) contains twenty-eight paragraphs, consisting chiefly of moral and ascetic precepts. He left in manuscript many notes ("derashot") to Caro's Shulḥan 'Aruk and to Maimonides' Yad ha-Ḥazaḳah, a comprehensive treatise on the order Ṭohorot, and many responsa.

  • Walden, Shem ha-Gedolim he-Ḥadash, i. 406, Warsaw, 1864;
  • Steinschneider, Hebr. Bibl. iv. 27.
Joshua Aaron Lipschütz:

Rabbi at Bützow, Mecklenburg-Schwerin; born in Poland in 1768. He was a correspondent of Jacob Emden ("She'elat Ya'abeẓ," pp. 50 et seq.).

S. M. K.Judah Löb b. Isaac Lipschütz:

Austrian rabbi and author of the seventeenth century; rabbi at Eidlitz, Bohemia. He wrote: "Hanhagot Adam," a collection of rules from other works, on daily religious practises (Fürth, 1691; Amsterdam, 1717; Zolkiev, 1770); "Ẓaddiḳ Tamim," a redaction of the former work with many additions (Fürth, 1699; an abridgment of the book was seen in manuscript by Nepi, in Padua); "We-Zot li-Yehudah," explanations added to Jacob Weil's "Sheḥiṭot u-Bediḳot," on the rules of slaughtering cattle (Fürth, 1699; Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1820).

  • Fürst, Bibl. Jud. i. 225, 226;
  • Zedner, Cat. Hebr. Books Brit. Mus. p. 439;
  • Benjacob, Oẓar ha-Sefarim, pp. 141, 506, 571.
L. G. N. T. L.Moses ben Noah Isaac Lipschütz:

Polish rabbi, and the author of the commentary "Leḥem Mishneh," on the orders Zera'im, Mo'ed, and Ḳodashim (published, according to Azulai, in 1596). He wrote a commentary also to the treatise Abot (Lublin, 1612; reprinted at Cracow in 1637 and included in the edition of the Mishnah published at Amsterdam in 1726).

  • Azulai, Shem ha-Gedolim, ii. 71.
S. M. K.Noah b. Abraham Lipschütz (called Noah Mindes):

Polish rabbinical scholar; died in Wilna Dec. 22, 1797. He was a prominent member of the Jewish community of Wilna, and married a daughter of Elijah Pesseles. Lipschütz's daughter married Abraham, son of Elijah, gaon of Wilna. Lipschütz was the author of two cabalistic works, "Parpera'ot le-Ḥokmah" (Shklov, 1785), on the Pentateuch, and "Nifla'ot Ḥadashot" (Grodno, 1797), which latter includes cabalistic explanations by R. Samson Ostropoler. Both works were published anonymously. Noah died about three months after Elijah Gaon and was buried near him.

  • Fuenn, Ḳiryah Ne'emanah, pp. 170-171, Wilna, 1860.
H. R. P. Wi.Solomon ben Moses Lipschütz:

German cantor; born at Fürth about 1675; died at Metz after 1708. He studied at Nikolsburg in the yeshibah of David Oppenheim, and for some time acted as cantor, shoḥeṭ, and teacher at Wallerstein. He then went to Pfersee, and thence to Prague, where he became chief cantor in the Phinehas and Zigeuner synagogues. In 1706 he retired to Frank-fort-on-the-Main, but in the following year accepted the position of cantor at Metz, where he died. Lipschütz was the author of "Te'udat Shelomoh" (Offenbach, 1708), a book of morals and laws for cantors, published with the approbation of the rabbi and parnas of Metz.

D. B. Fr.