JewishEncyclopedia.com

The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
FEUST, KARL – German jurist; son of the chief rabbi of Bamberg; born at Bamberg Oct. 9, 1798; died at Fürth Aug. 19, 1872. Having been destined for a rabbinical career, he received a Talmudic education. At the age of fifteen he enteredthe...
FEZ – Capital of the province of Fez in the sultanate of Morocco; built in the year 808 by Imam Idris II., who founded in Morocco the first Shiite state. A small wadi, known under various names, divides the city into two parts, Old...
FEZ, DAVID OF – See Fez.
FIAMETTA, JOSEPH BEN SOLOMON – Rabbi of Ancona, Italy; died in 1721. His name iswritten variously: Wolf, in the Latin transcription of his name, gives "Flamneta"; Carmoly ("Hist. des Médecins Juifs," p. 237) has "Piamita"; and Delitzsch ("Zur Geschichte der...
FICHEL, BENJAMIN-EUGÈNE – French painter; born in Paris Aug. 30, 1826; died there Feb. 7, 1895. After essaying historical painting he turned his attention to producing small genre pictures in the style of Meissonier, though he was a pupil of Paul...
FIDANQUE, JACOB BEN ABRAHAM – English scholar; died at London in 1701. He was one of the first Jews after the Return to busy himself with the study of rabbinic literature. He is the author of notes on the commentary to the Earlier Prophets by Isaac...
FIELDS – See Agrarian Laws; Landlord and Tenant.
FIG AND FIG-TREE – The fig-tree (Ficus Carica) and its fruit are designated in Hebrew by the same word, "te'enah" (Deut. viii. 8; Judges ix. 10; Num. xiii. 23; II Kings xx. 7); the plural, "te'enim," indicating the fruit as distinct from the tree....
FIGAH – River in the Damascene, affluent of the Barada (the Biblical "Abana"). "Figah" comes from the Greek πηγὴ, and is still to be found in the name "'Ain Fijah," the chief source of the Barada. Reland has identified it with Pliny's...
FIGO (PIGO), AZARIAH BEN EPHRAIM – Preacher at Venice; died at Rovigo 1647. Figo was an excellent scribe, and the scrolls which he wrote are highly prized. He was the author of "Iggerot u-Teshubot," letters and responsa, published in a similar work entitled...
FILEHNE – See Posen.
FILIPOWSKI (PHILLIP), HIRSCH – Mathematician, linguist, and editor; born at Wirballen, Russia, 1816; died in London, England, July 22, 1872. At an early age he showed great aptitude for the study of mathematics and languages, and was fortunate in finding a...
FINANCE – The supplying of capital for large undertakings, a characteristic of modern forms of commerce. As distinguished from the more passive side of banking, the reception of deposits, it may be described as the active aspect of a...
FINCKENSTEIN, RAPHAEL – German physician and poet; born at Breslau Nov. 10, 1828; died there July 31, 1874. He was educated at the gymnasium and the university of his native town, receiving the degree of doctor of medicine in 1850. The same year he...
FINDER OF PROPERTY – In law he who finds and takes up lost goods acquires thereby a special ownership as first occupant against all the world excepting the true owner. The duty, however, to seek out the true owner and to restore the lost things to...
FINES AND FORFEITURE – A fine or forfeiture, in the sense either that a sum of money is to be paid, or that the whole or a part of a man's property is to be turned over to the king or commonwealth by way of punishment for an offense, is unknown to...
FINGER – One of the digits. In the Bible the term is sometimes used in a figurative sense, denoting power, direction, or immediate agency. "Thy heavens, the works of thy fingers [of thy power]," says the Psalmist (Ps. viii. 3). "Tables...
FINLAND – Laws of 1779 and 1782. Russian grand duchy; formerly part of Sweden. It has a small Jewish population, which finds itself in a somewhat peculiar position with regard to the law of the land. In 1772 Finland was still a part of...
FINN, JULIUS – Russian - American chess-player; born April 28, 1871, at Vladislavovo, government of Suwalki, Russian Poland; emigrated to the United States in 1887. At a tournament played in the city of New York November, 1895, he won...
FINTA – A Spanish term signifying a tax which is paid to the government. It is still used—for example, in London by the Spanish and Portuguese congregations to designate a part of their revenue, levied by assessors ("fintadores")...
FINZI – An ancient Italian family, which probably derived its name from "Pineḥas," through the Latin "Finea." The remotest known bearers of the name of "Finzi" were Musetino del fu Museto do Finzi di Ancona, who was concerned in...
FINZI, FELICE – Italian Assyriologist; born at Correggio, 1847; died at Florence, 1872. While studying law at the University of Bologna he devoted himself to languages, and especially to the Assyrian language and literature, on which he...
FINZI, GIUSEPPE – Italian patriot and parliamentarian; born at Rivarolo Fuori, province of Mantua, 1815; died Dec. 17, 1886. He studied at Padua from 1831 to 1835; in 1834 he joined the secret organization Giovane Italia. In 1844 he met Mazzini...
FINZI, GIUSEPPE – Italian scholar and poet; born at Busseto Nov. 12, 1852. He has filled the chair of Italian literature in various gymnasia andacademies, at Modena, Turin, and other cities of Italy, and has written a number of works dealing...
FINZI, MOSES – Italian lawyer; born at Florence in 1830. He studied law at Pisa, and was admitted to the bar in 1856. For some years he was an associate of Mari. In 1900 the rabbinical title of "maskil" was conferred upon him. He is professor...