Systems of Transliteration Citation Headings

A. Rules for the Transliteration of Hebrew and Aramaic.

  1. 1. All important names which occur in the Bible are cited as found in the authorized King James version; e.g., Moses, not Mosheh; Isaac, not Yiẓḥaḳ; Saul, not Sha'ul or Shaül; Solomon, not Shelomoh, etc.
  2. 2. The spellings of names that have gained currency in English books on Jewish subjects, or that have become familiar to English readers, are generally retained; cross-references are given when topics are treated under forms transliterated according to the system tabulated below.
  3. 3. Hebrew subject-headings are transcribed according to the scheme of transliteration; cross-references are made as in the case of personal names.
  4. 4. The following system of transliteration has been used for Hebrew and Aramaic:
    אNot noted at the beginning or the end of a word; otherwise' or by dieresis; e.g., pe'er or Miïr.
    בbזzU+05Dlפּ(with dagesh), psh
    גgחמmפ(without dagesh), fs
    Note: The presence of dagesh lene is not noted except in the case of פ. Dagesh forte is indicated by doubling the letter.
  5. 5. The vowels have been transcribed as follows:
    (ḳameẓ) auaeo
    (ḳameẓ ḥatuf) o
    The so-called "Continental" pronunciation of the English vowels is implied.
  6. 6. The Hebrew article is transcribed as ha, followed by a hyphen, without doubling the following letter. [Not hak-Kohen or hak-Cohen, nor Rosh ha-shshanah.]

B. Rules for the Transliteration of Arabic.

  1. 1. All Arabic names and words, except such as have become familiar to English readers in other forms, as Mohammed, Koran, mosque, are transliterated according to the following system:
    See א aboveخkhڞshغghn
  2. 2. Only the three vowels—a, i, u—are represented:
    No account has been taken of the imalah; i has not been written e, nor u written o.
  3. 3. The Arabic article is invariably written al, no account being taken of the assimilation of the l to the following letter; e.g, Abu al-Salt, not Abu-l-Salt; Nafis al-Daulah, not Nafis ad-Daulah. The article is joined by a hyphen to the following word.
  4. 4. At the end of words the feminine termination is written ah; but when followed by a genitive, at; e.g., Risalah dhat al-Kursiyy, but Hi'at al-Aflak.
  5. 5. No account is taken of the overhanging vowels which distinguish the cases; e.g., 'Amr, not 'Amru or 'Amrun; Ya'ḳub, not Ya'ḳubun; or in a title, Kitab al-Amanat wal-I'tiḳadat.

C. Rules for the Transliteration of Russian.

  1. All Russian names and words, except such as have become familiar to English readers in other forms, as Czar, Alexander, deciatine, Moscow, are transliterated according to the following system:
    Ггh, v, or gРрrЬьhalf mute
    Ееe and ye at the beginning.ТтtЭэe
    Ии І іiХхkhΘθF

Rules for the Citation of Proper Names, Personal and Otherwise.

  1. 1. Whenever possible, an author is cited under his most specific name; e.g., Moses Nigrin under Nigrin; Moses Zacuto under Zacuto; Moses Rieti under Rieti; all the Ḳimḥis (or Ḳamḥis) under Ḳimḥi; Israel ben Joseph Drohobiczer under Drohobiczer. Cross-references are freely made from any other form to the most specific one; e.g., to Moses Vidal from Moses Narboni; to Solomon Nathan Vidal from Menahem Meïri; to Samuel Kansi from Samuel Astruc Dascola; to Jedaiah Penini from both Bedersi and En Bonet; to John of Avignon from Moses de Roquemaure.
  2. 2. When a person is not referred to as above, he is cited under his own personal name followed by his official or other title; or, where he has borne no such title, by "of" followed by the place of his birth or residence; e.g., Johanan ha-Sandlar; Samuel ha-Nagid; Judah he-Ḥasid; Gershom of Metz; Isaac of Corbeil.
  3. 3. Names containing the words d', de, da, di, van, von, y, of, ben, ha-, ibnWhen Ibn has come to be a specific part of a name, as Ibn Ezra, such name is treated in its alphabetical place under "I." are arranged under the letter of the name following this word, e.g., de Pomis under Pomis, de Barrios under Barrios, Jacob d'Illescas under Illescas. The order of topics is illustrated by the following examples:
    • Abraham of Augsburg
    • Abraham of Avila
    • Abraham ben Azriel
    • Abraham de Balmes
    • Abraham ben Baruch
    • Abraham of Beja
    • Abraham ben Benjamin Aaron
    • Abraham ben Benjamin Zeeb
    • Abraham Benveniste

Note to the Reader. Subjects on which further information is afforded elsewhere in this work are indicated by the use of capitals and small capitals in the text; as, Abba Arika; Pumbedita; Vocalization