JewishEncyclopedia.com

The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
MARKUS, LUDWIG – German Orientalist; born in Dessau Oct. 31, 1798; died in Paris July 15, 1843. He attended the Franzschule and the ducal gymnasium in Dessau; he was sent to the latter by the hereditary Prince of Anhalt-Dessau, his father having...
MARLI – Italian Talmudist and liturgist of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. According to S. D. Luzzatto, the name "Marli" means "of Arles" (Steinschneider, "Hebr. Bibl." iv. 97, v. 46). Marli was the head of the yeshibah of...
MARMOREK, ALEXANDER – Austrian physician; born at Mielnica, Galicia, Feb. 19, 1865; educated at a gymnasium and at the University of Vienna (M.D. 1887). He removed to Paris, where he became a pupil, later an assistant, at the Pasteur Institute. He is...
MARMOREK, OSKAR – Austrian architect; brother of Alexander Marmorek; born at Skirta, Galicia, April 9, 1863. He studied at the polytechnic high school at Vienna and took a postgraduate course at Paris. Returning to Vienna in 1889, he settled...
MARRIAGE – Forms of the Marriage Relation. —Biblical Data: The earliest Hebrew literature represents a comparatively high development of social and domestic life. Of primitive conditions of polyandry, such as existed among the early Arabs,...
MARRIAGE-BROKER – See Shadkan.
MARRIAGE CEREMONIES – Association of the sexes was much restricted among the Jews, and the Betrothal was generally brought about by a third person, often a professional match-maker ("shadkan"). The latter received a brokerage-fee fixed by law, as a...
MARRIAGE LAWS – Age for Marriage. The first positive commandment of the Bible, according to rabbinic interpretation (Maimonides, "Minyan ha-Miẓwot," 212), is that concerning the propagation of the human species (Gen. i. 28). It is thus...
MARRIAGE SETTLEMENT – See Ketubah.
MARRIED WOMAN – See Woman.
MARSEILLES – Seaport of southern France with about 5,000 Jews in a population (1896) of 420,300. It had a Jewish colony as early as the fifth century, and in 567 a number of exiles from Clermont, Auvergne, sought refuge there from the...
MARSHALL, LOUIS – American lawyer and communal worker; born at Syracuse, N. Y., Dec. 14, 1856; educated at the Syracuse high school and at the Columbia College Law School. He entered upon the practise of his profession in Syracuse in 1878,...
MARTIN, RAYMUND – Spanish Christian theologian; born in the first half of the thirteenth century at Subirats in Catalonia; died after 1284. In 1250 he was selected by the provincial chapter, sitting in Toledo, to study Oriental languages at a...
MARTINET, ADAM – German Catholic Orientalist; born in Höchstädt, near Bamberg, in Jan., 1800; date of death uncertain. Martinet, who was a professor in the lyceum of Bamberg, was the author of "Tif'eret Yisrael," or "Hebräische Chrestomathie der...
MARTINEZ, FERRAND – Archdeacon of Ecija in the fourteenth century, and one of the most inveterate enemies of the Jewish people; lived at Seville, where among Christians he was highly respected for his piety and philanthropy. In his sermons and...
MARTINI GEESE – See Barnacle-Goose.
MARTINIQUE – Island in the West Indies, now constituting a French colony. In the beginning of the seventeenth century a number of Dutch Jews settled at Martinique and in the neighboring islands, and were in very prosperous circumstances when...
MARTYRDOM, RESTRICTION OF – True to the principle current in rabbinical literature—"live through them [the laws], but do not die through them" (Yoma 85b, based on Lev. xviii. 5)—the Rabbis endeavored to restrain the desire for martyrdom on the part of the...
MARTYROLOGY – Biography of martyrs. Early in its existence the Christian Church began to register the judicial proceedings against its martyrs and saints. These records, called "Acta Sanctorum," took the form of calendars, menologies,...
MARTYRS, THE TEN – Among the numerous victims of the persecutions of Hadrian, tradition names ten great teachers who suffered martyrdom for having, in defiance of an edict of the Roman emperor, instructed their pupils in the Law. They are referred...
MARX, ADOLF BERNHARD – German musical writer; born at Halle May 15, 1799; died at Berlin May 17, 1866. He had studied music for some time with D. S. Türk when his father, who had destined him for the law, sent him to the University of Halle, where he...
MARX, BERTHE – French pianist; born at Paris July 28, 1859. She began to study the pianoforte at the age of four, receiving her first instruction from her father, who for forty years was a violoncello-player in the Conservatoire and Grand...
MARX, DAVID – Chief rabbi of Bordeaux, France; born at Landau, Bavaria, in 1807; died Feb., 1864. On his graduation from the Ecole Centrale Rabbinique at Metz he assumed charge of the Ecole Religieuse Israélite at Nancy; and in June, 1837,...
MARX, JACOB – German physician; born in Bonn 1743; died in Hanover Jan. 24, 1789; studied medicine in Halle (M. D. 1765). He traveled for scientific purposes in Holland and England, in the latter country making the acquaintance of Dr. John...
MARX, KARL – German socialistic leader and political economist; born at Treves May 5, 1818; died in London March 14, 1883. His father, a practising attorney at the Landgericht, adopted Christianity in 1824. Marx attended the gymnasium at...