JewishEncyclopedia.com

The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
JOEL – 1. Biblical Data: The superscription of the second book of the so-called Minor Prophets names as the author of the book "Joel, the son of Pethuel." Further historical record is wanting. It is even impossible to get an idea of...
JOEL, BOOK OF – Biblical Data: The prophecies of the Book of Joel are divided into two parts, comprising respectively (1) ch. i. 2-ii. 17 and (2) ch. ii. 18-iv. 21. The contents of the first part may be summarized as follows:The prophet at the...
JOËL, DAVID – German rabbi and author; born Jan. 12, 1815, at Inowrazlaw, Posen; died Sept. 7, 1882, at Breslau; brother of Manuel Joël. His father, who went in 1832 as chief rabbi to Schwerin-a-W., as well as R. Akiba Eger of Posen,...
JOEL B. ISAAC HA-LEVI – German tosafist of the twelfth century; born probably at Bonn; died at Cologne about 1200. Joel studied in his youth at Ratisbon under Ephraim b. Isaac, Isaac b. Mordecai, and Moses b. Joel, with whom he later kept up a learned...
JOEL B. JUDAH SELKI HA-LEVI (LÄMMEL?) – Author of "Dibre ha-Iggeret," a description of the sufferings of the Jews of Glogau when that town was besieged by the Prussians in the winter of 1740-41. It was published at an unknown place in 1741, but became so rare that...
JOËL, KARL – German philosophical writer; born March 27, 1864, at Hirschberg, Silesia; son of Rabbi H. Joël of that city and nephew of David and Manuel Joël. Educated at the gymnasium of his native town and the universities of Breslau and...
JOEL, LEWIS – British consul-general to Chile; born in Dublin 1824; died in London Feb. 28, 1899. He was educated at Bristol; in May, 1861, was appointed unpaid British vice-consul at Cobija; and from Sept., 1863, to June, 1866, was acting...
JOËL, MANUEL – German rabbi; born Oct. 19, 1826, at Birnbaum, province of Posen; died at Breslau Nov. 3, 1890; son of Rabbi Heimann Joël of Birnbaum. In 1849 he went to the University of Berlin to study classical philology and philosophy. In...
JOEL IBN SHU'AIB – See Ibn Shu'aib, Joel.
JOHANAN B. BAROḲA – Teacher of the second century (second and third tannaitic periods); disciple of Joshua b. Hananiah and colleague of Eleazar b. Ḥiṣma (Tosef., Soṭah, vii. 9; Ḥag. 3a). He maintained a scholarly intercourse with Johanan b. Nuri....
JOHANAN GADI – Eldest of the five sons of Mattathias the Maccabee (I Macc. ii. 2; Josephus, "Ant." xii. 6, § 1), though the least important. When Jonathan took the leadership and was being hard pressed in the country east of the Jordan, he...
JOHANAN B. GUDGADA – Scholar and chief gatekeeper at the Temple in the last years of its existence (Tosef., Sheḳ. ii. 14); senior of Joshua b. Hananiah. He survived the destruction of Jerusalem, and was present at the memorable sessions of the...
JOHANAN BEN HA-ḤORANIT – Palestinian tanna of the first generation; disciple of Hillel (according to Frankel, "Darke ha-Mishnah," p. 53, note 8, a disciple of Shammai) and teacher of Eleazar b. Zadok. Once, during a famine, his pupil Eleazar found him...
JOHANAN BEN ISAAC OF HOLLESCHAU – Rabbi of the German community of London at the beginning of the eighteenth century. He edited "Teshubot ha-Geonim," responsa of contemporary rabbis on the pronunciation of the divine names, with additions of his own (Amsterdam,...
JOHANAN BEN JEHOIADA – High priest under Artaxerxes Ochus (359-338 B.C.); perhaps identical with the one mentioned in Neh. xii. 11 ("Johanan" being read instead of "Jonathan") and 22. He murdered his younger brother Jesus in the Temple, probably...
JOHANAN BEN KAREAH – General of the Israelites at the time of Nebuchadnezzar (c. 586 B.C.). After the kingdom of Judea had been destroyed by the Chaldeans, the Babylonian king appointed Gedaliah b. Ahikam governor, with residence at Mizpah, over the...
JOHANAN BEN MERIYA – Palestinian amora of the fifth or sixth generation (4th and 5th cent.). Johanan is frequently mentioned in the Talmud of Jerusalem in connection with both halakic and haggadic subjects, instances of the latter, however,...
JOHANAN B. NAPPAḤA (HA-NAPPAḤ) – His Teachers. Palestinian scholar; born at Sepphoris in the last quarter of the second century; died at Tiberias 279. He is generally cited as "Johanan," but sometimes by his cognomen only (Yer. R. H. ii. 58b; Sanh. 96a), which...
JOHANAN B. HA-NAZUF – Friend of Gamaliel II. (first and second centuries). It is related that Ḥalafta once went to Tiberias and found Gamaliel at the house of Johanan b. ha-Nazuf (= "the excommunicated"), reading a targum of the Book of Job. Ḥalafta...
JOHANAN B. NURI – Tanna of the first and second centuries; junior of Gamaliel II. and senior of Akiba (Sifra, Ḳedoshim, iv. 9; 'Ar. 16b; comp. Sifre, Deut. 1). A great halakist, always provided with satisfactory answers to all questions, he was...
JOHANAN HA-SANDALAR – Tanna of the second century; one of Akiba's disciples that survived the Hadrianic persecutions and transmitted the traditional law (Gen. R. lxi. 3; Eccl. R. xi, 6; comp. Yeb. 62b). With several colleagues he repaired to the...
JOHANAN B. TORTA – Scholar of the first and second centuries; contemporary of Akiba. When Akiba hailed Bar Kokba as the Messiah, the latter exclaimed, "Akiba, grass will have grown out of thy jaws ere the Son of David appears" (Yer. Ta'an. viii....
JOHANAN B. ZAKKAI – The most important tanna in the last decade of the Second Temple, and, after the destruction of Jerusalem, the founder and first president of the academy at Jabneh. According to the theory formulated in the Mishnah (Ab. ii. 8),...
JOHANNES DE CAPUA – See John of Capua.
JOHANNES HISPALENSIS – Baptized Jew who flourished between 1135 and 1153; his Jewish name is unknown and has been corrupted into "Avendeut," "Avendehut" = "Aven Daud," "Avendar." He was a native of Toledo, and hence is called also Johannes (David)...