German city, particularly noted for its Samson-Schule, a school, originally at Brunswick, founded by Herz Samson, on a legacy by his father. On June 4, 1786, Philip, the brother of Herz, opened a Talmud school at Wolfenbüttel for boys. The funds of these schools were increased by subsequent gifts of the founders and their descendants. In 1805 the two foundations were combined as the "Samson Free School," and were transformed into a German seminary and school in charge of four teachers. Instruction was given in German, French, arithmetic, geography, history, and calligraphy, and the school consisted of one class with eight free scholars. In 1813 the Brunswick school was incorporated with the free school, and the funds were combined, with the condition that five additional free scholars should be admitted. As paying boarding pupils had also been received at the request of many parents, a second class was organized. Instruction in the Talmud was subsequently discontinued. In 1843 the institution was changed to a grammar-school with three classes, and was named "Samson-Schule." After 1871 it was gradually enlarged to a high school, and by 1903 it had gained the status of a real-school with six classes. It was under the direction and supervision of the ducal school-board of Brunswick, and was empowered to give certificates for one year's military service. Since 1881 Christian boys have been admitted as pupils and receive special religious instruction. In 1903 the faculty included the director, Ludwig Tachau, five teachers with university training, and three elementary teachers, one of whom also acts as resident teacher. The trustees are Counselor of Justice Magnus of Brunswick, Gustav Cohen of Hanover, and L. Samson of Wolfenbüttel. Among the former pupils of the institution may be mentioned M. I. Jost, Leopold Zunz, and Samuel Meyer Ehrenberg (1807-46), who was later its director. Although the institution was frequently enlarged, in 1895-96 a new and larger building with all modern improvements was erected to accommodate the constantly increasing attendance. In 1903 there were 148 boarders and 11 day pupils. There are twenty-five full and between eighteen and twenty partial scholarships, in addition to numerous foundations for the assistance of pupils, even after they have left the institution.

S. L. K.
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