• 1 (called Ha-Ḳaẓin). One of the chief poets of the second half of the thirteenth century; resided in Montpellier. In 1277 he was one of the five representatives of theJewish community to which James II. of Aragon granted a synagogue for a long term of years in consideration of the payment of five Melgorian sous annually by the Jews of the city. Abraham Bedersi, who esteemed Todros highly, and considered him, together with Kalonymus ben Meïr of Arles and Kalonymus ben Todros of Narbonne, as one of the greatest men of his period, complained to him in bitter terms of the evil days in which they lived and of the low opinion held of poetry. Abraham also replied in verse to a poem which Todros addressed to him and which when read from left to right has an entirely different sense from that which it has when read from right to left.Bibliography: Renan-Neubauer, Les Rabbins Français, pp. 712, 716; R. E. J. xix. 265, 273.
  • 2. Rabbinical scholar of Montpellier at the beginning of the fourteenth century. He was one of the most devoted adherents of Abba Mari of Lunel during the period of religious polemics between 1303 and 1306, bitterly opposing all who studied science or philosophy. Despite the presence of Don Crescas Vidal of Perpignan, who was at Montpellier at the time, the fanaticism of Todros drove him to protest violently against the author (probably Moses ibn Tibbon) of a commentary on the Pentateuch which explained as allegories events recorded in the first five books of the Bible. Like Abba Mari, he did not hesitate to disregard the opposition of Jacob ben Machir, and to read publicly in the synagogue of Montpellier the letter addressed by fifteen rabbis of Barcelona, headed by Solomon ben Adret, to the Jewish community, in which the sentence of excommunication was pronounced against all who should devote themselves to the study of philosophy under the age of thirty. This rabbi is identified by Zunz and Gross with Todros ha-Ḳaẓin of Beaucaire.Bibliography: Gross, Gallia Judaica, p. 329; Abba Mari, Minḥat Ḳena'ot, ed. Presburg, pp. 48, 61, 63; Renan-Neubauer, Les Rabbins Français, pp. 659, 663; Zunz, Z. G. p. 476.S. S. K.
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