American Christian Orientalist; born at Norfolk, Va., March 23, 1836. He was educated at the University of Virginia, and studied Orientalia at the University of Berlin (1866-68). On his return from Europe he was appointed professor of Hebrew at the Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, Greenville, S. C., and in 1880 became Hancock professor of Hebrew and Oriental languages at Harvard University. He is the author of "The Religion of Israel" (1882), and "Judaism and Christianity" (Boston, 1890), a careful and sympathetic study of the relation between the two religions. He edited the Hebrew text and the English translation of Ezekiel for the Polychrome Bible in 1899, and published a commentary on Proverbs in the "International Critical Series" in the same year. Toy has been editor of the Hellenistic department of The Jewish Encyclopedia since its inception.

  • Who's Who in America, 1905.
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