American Christian Orientalist; born at Stonington, Conn., June 8, 1830; died at Philadelphia Dec. 8, 1903. He was educated at Williston Seminary, Mass., and took up Sunday-school work, becoming in 1858 state missionary of the American Sunday-School Association, and in 1865 the New England secretary of the American Sunday-School Union. In 1875 he took charge of the "Sunday School Times," which he made an organ of considerable influence, even in scholarly circles. In 1881 ill health caused him to travel. He visited Egypt, Arabia, and Syria, and during the journey he identified the site of Kadeshbarnea, on which he wrote a monograph (Philadelphia, 1884). He wrote also "Studies in Oriental Social Life" (1894), dealing especially with the aspects which threw light upon Biblical archeology; and two works of considerable influence; namely, "The Blood Covenant" (New York, 1885), in which he laid down the theory, afterward developed by W. R. Smith, that sacrifice was a blood covenant; and "The Threshold Covenant" (1896; see Threshold).

  • Nat. Cyc. of American Biography, vol. ix.
A. J.
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