YOM-ṬOB BEN ISAAC OF JOIGNY (called also ha-Ḳodesh):

Tosafist and liturgical poet who suffered martyrdom at York, Eingland, in March, 1190, as has been proved by Grätz ("Gesch." vi. 455). The Jews of York sought refuge in the fortress from the fury of the populace; and after offering a vain resistance for several days the most of them, on the advice of Yom-Ṭob ben Isaac, joined him in voluntary death.

Yom-Ṭob was a pupil of R. Tam, and was prominent as a tosafist, being frequently mentioned with the epithet "ha-Ḳodesh" (= "the Holy" or "the Martyr"). He also was a Biblical exegete and a liturgical poet. His best-known productions are Omnam Ken, a hymn sung on the eve of the Day of Atonement, and a penitential prayer in fourteen stanzas. He wrote also an elegy beginning with the words "Yah tishpok" and lamenting the death of the Jews of Blois who perished in 1071.

  • Zunz, Z. G. pp. 52, 100;
  • idem, Literaturgesch, pp. 286 et seq.;
  • Grätz, Gesch. vi. 265;
  • Gross, Gallia Judaica, p. 252;
  • R. E. J. iii. 5;
  • Tr. Jew. Hist. Soc. Eng. iii. 9 et seq.;
  • Jacobs, Jews of Angevin England, pp. 109-112, 125, 421 (bibliography).
J. M. K.
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