King of Syria; died 95 B.C. He was the half-brother of Antiochus VIII., the preceding king. He rose against him in 113, and for two years was sole ruler of Syria. He was then, however, compelled to be satisfied with the district of Cœle-syria, since Antiochus VIII. obtained possession of all the rest. According to the description given by Diodorus, Antiochus IX. was like the fourth Antiochus in character and certainly resembled him in hostility to the Jews. Circumstances, it is true, were different; the relative strength of Syria and Judea had in the meantime undergone changes, very much to the advantage of the latter. When in 110-107 B.C. he attempted to lend assistance to the Samaritans, then hard pressed by the Jews, he was easily beaten off. A second attempt to subjugate Judea with the help of Egyptian soldiers failed. He was compelled to retreat after suffering great losses, and the generals whom he left in command fared no better. Thereupon Antiochus desisted from further hostilities.

Silver Coin of Antiochus IX. Obverse: Head of Antiochus, diademed. Reverse: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ ΦΙΛΟΠΑΤΡΟΣ. Pallas armed, holding Nikē and spear.(After Gardner, "Catalogue of Seleucid Coins.")
  • Flathe, Gesch. Makedoniens, ii. 673;
  • Ewald, History, 353-364;
  • Kuhn, Beiträge zur Gesch. der Seleukiden, 18 et seq.;
  • Schürer, Gesch. i. 210 et seq.;
  • Willrich, Judaica, index;
  • Wellhausen, I. J. G. 2d ed., p. 262.
L. G.
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