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Mentioned only once (Hosea x. 14) as a city destroyed by Shalman. Opinions vary both as to the location of the place and as to the identification of Shalman. The most probable location is that of the modern Irbid on the east side of the Jordan (G. A. Smith, "Historical Geography of the Holy Land"). As for Shalman, Schrader ("K. A. T.," ii. 440-442) says he is a Moabite king, Shalamanu. Conder favors Shalmaneser III.; Wellhausen ("Kleine Propheten") and Nowack (Commentary) Shalmaneser IV. A solution may be found in the Septuagint reading, "Beth-Jeroboam" for "Betharbel" and "Shallum" for "Shalman." The passage would then refer to the destruction of the house of Jeroboam by Shallum (II Kings xv. 10).

J. Jr. G. B. L.
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