These were of frequent use among the Jews in the Middle Ages. Judah ibn Tibbon (about 1200) speaks in loving terms of his collection of books and of its catalogue, both of which he recommends tohis son Samuel. Specimens of old catalogues from various genizot have been brought to light within recent years, the oldest and most important, in respect to the number and interest of its volumes, being that published by E. N. Adler and I. Broydé in "Jew. Quart. Rev." xiii. 52 et seq. This fragment of a catalogue, compiled in the twelfth century, gives an Arabic description of 100 works offered for sale. The books are indeed summarily described without much method; still, the cataloguer states that they are divided into the following classes: Bible, Mishnah, Talmud, Theology, Halakah, and Liturgy—a fact which shows the existence of a system in the classification of books even at that early period.

Unfortunately, such catalogues, so important to bibliography, are very scarce; and this scarcity has caused a distinct gap in the history of Hebrew literature in the Middle Ages. It is only within the last two and a half centuries that public as well as private libraries have adopted the practise of publishing catalogues. In the following list of printed ones of both public and private collections of Hebrew books, the former are arranged in the alphabetical order of the towns in which the libraries exist, and the latter in that of the names of the owners of the collections:

Public Collections.
  • Amsterdam: "Catalog der Hebraica und Judaica aus der L. Rosenthal'schen Bibliothek," by M. Roest, 2 vols., Amsterdam, 1875. A special division is devoted to a description of 32 MSS. in that library.
  • Berlin: "Die Handschriftlichen Verzeichnisse der Königl. Bibliothek," . . . by M. Steinschneider; 2 vols. in two divisions, describing 259 MSS., Berlin, 1878, 1897.
  • Bern: "Catalogus Codicum Bernensium," Bern, 1875. At the beginning is a description of 20 Hebrew MSS.
  • Bologna: "Catalogo dei Codici Ebraici della Università di Bologna," by Leonello Modona, in "Cataloghi dei Codici Orientali di Alcune Biblioteche d'Italia," Florence, 1878-97 (28 MSS.).
  • Breslau: (1) "Catalog der Bibliothek der Synagogen-Gemeinde," Breslau, 1861; (2) "Catalogus Bibl. Seminarii Jud.-Theol. Vratislaviensis," . . . by B. Zuckermann, Breslau, 1876 (190 MSS.).
  • Cambridge, England: "Catalogue of the Hebrew Manuscripts Preserved in the University Library," by S. M. Schiller-Szinessy, Cambridge, 1876, vol. i. (72 MSS., Bible and commentaries).
  • Copenhagen: "Codices Orientales Bibliothecæ Regiæ Hafniensis . . . Pars Altera Codices Hebraicos Continens," Copenhagen, 1851 (46 MSS.).
  • Florence: "Bibliothecæ Mediceo-Laurentainæ Catalogus . . . Tomus Primus, Codices Orientales Complectens," by Maria Bisconi, Florence, 1752-57 (221 MSS.).
  • Hamburg: "Catalog der Hebräischen Handschriften in der Stadtbibliothek zu Hamburg," by M. Steinschneider, Hamburg, 1878 (355 MSS.).
  • Leipsic: "Catalogus Librorum Manuscriptorum qui in Bibliotheca Civitatis Lipsiensis Asservantur," by Naumann. "Codices Orientalium Linguarum," by Fleischer and Delitzsch, Leipsic, 1838 (43 MSS.). With additamenta by Zunz.
  • Leyden: "Catalogus Codicum Hebræorum," . . . by M. Steinschneider, Leyden, 1858 (114 MSS.).
  • London (British Museum): "Catalogue of the Hebrew Books in the Library of the British Museum," by J. Zedner, London, 1867. "Catalogue of Hebrew Books in the British Museum Acquired During the Years 1868-92," by S. van Straalen, London, 1894. "Descriptive List of the Hebrew and Samaritan MSS. in the British Museum," by G. Margoliouth, London, 1893. "Catalogue of the Hebrew and Samaritan MSS. in the British Museum," by G. Margoliouth, vol. i. (339 Bible MSS.), London, 1899. (Bet ha-Midrash:) "Catalogue of the Hebrew MSS. in the Jews' College," by Ad. Neubauer, Oxford, 1886 (148 MSS.). "Catalogue of Hebraica and Judaica in the Library of the Corporation of the City of London," by A. Löwy, London, 1891.
  • Mantua: "Catalogo dei Manuscritti Ebraici della Communità Israelita di Mantova," by M. Mortara, Leghorn, 1878 (78 MSS.).
  • Milan (Ambrosiana): "Die Hebr. Handschriften," by A. Berliner, in "Magazin," vii. 111.
  • Modena: "Katalog der Hebräischen Handschriften der Königl. Bibliothek in Modena," by Grünwald, 1838 (27 MSS.).
  • Monte Cassino: "I Codici e le Carti a Monte Cassino," vol. i. Monte Cassino, 1869 (2 MSS.).
  • Munich: "Die Hebräischen Handschriften der K. Hof-und Staatsbibliothek," . . . by M. Steinschneider, Munich, 1875 (418 MSS.).
  • Nîmes: "MSS. Hébreux de la Bibliothèque de la Ville de Nîmes," by Joseph Simon, in "Rev. des Etudes Juives," iii. 225 et seq. (20 MSS.).
  • Oxford: "Catalogus Librorum Hebræorum in Bibliotheca Bodleiana," . . . by M. Steinschneider, Berlin, 1852-60. "Catalogue of the Hebrew Manuscripts in the Bodleian Library and in the College Libraries of Oxford," by Ad. Neubauer, Oxford, 1886 (2,541 MSS.).
  • Paris: "Catalogue des Manuscrits Hébreux et Samaritains de la Bibliothèque Impériale," by S. Munk and H. Zotenberg, Paris, 1866 (13 MSS.).
  • Parma: "MSS. Codices Hebraici Bibliot. I. B. De Rossi," 3 vols. Parma, 1803 (1,377 MSS.). "Catalogo dei Codici Ebraici della Bibl. di Parma non Descritti dal De Rossi," Florence, 1880 (111 MSS.).
  • Rome (Vatican): "Bibliothecæ-Apostolico-Vaticanæ Codicum Manuscriptorum Catalogus . . . Tomus Primus Complectens Ebraicos et Samaritanos," by Stefano Evodio and Giuseppe Simone Assemani, Rome, 1756 (512 MSS.). (Casanata:) "Catalogo dei Codici Ebraici della Bibliotheca Casanatense," by Gustavo Sacerdote, in "Cataloghi dei Codici," etc. (230 MSS.). (Angelica:) "Catalogo dei Codici Ebraici della Bibliotheca Angelica," by Angelo di Capua, in "Cataloghi dei Codici Ebraici," etc. (53 MSS.).
  • St. Petersburg: "Catalog der Heb. und Samaritanischen Handschriften der Kaiserlichen Oeffentlichen Bibliothek," by A. Harkavy and H. L. Strack, 2 vols., St. Petersburg, 1875 (259 Biblical MSS.). ", Catalogus Librorum Impressorum Hebræorum in Museo Asiatico Imperialis," . . . by Samuel Wiener (in course of publication).
  • Strasburg: "Catalog," etc., by Landauer.
  • Turin: "Codices Hebraici Manu Exarati Regiæ Bibliothecæ quæ in Taurinensi Athenæo Asservantur," by Ber. Peyron, Turin, 1880 (249 MSS.).
  • Upsala: "Verzeichniss der Hebräischen und Aramäischen Handschriften der Königl. Universitäts-Bibl.," by R. V. Zettersteen, Lund, 1900 (38 MSS.).
  • Venice: "Catalogo dei Codici Ebraici della Bibliotheca Marciana," by Mose Lattes, in "Cataloghi dei Codici Orientali," etc. (19 MSS.).
  • Vienna: "Die Handschriftlichen Hebräischen Werke der Hof-Bibl." by Albr. Krafft and Simeon Deutsch, Vienna, 1847. Supplement by J. Goldenthal, Vienna, 1851 (257 MSS.).
Private Collections.

Abbas, Samuel, Amsterdam, 1693. Aboab, Isaac, Amsterdam, 1693. Abraham, Judah Löb of Meseritz, The Hague, 1807. Adler, E. N. (only Karaitica), in "Jew. Quart. Rev." xiii. Aguilar, Moses Raphael de Amst., 1680. Almanzi, , by S. D. Luzzatto, Padua, 1864. Azulai, Ḥayyim Joseph, by Schönblum, Lemberg, 1872. Beer, , Berlin, 1863. Berlin, Berlin, 1866. Berliner, "Aus Meiner Bibliothek," Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1898. Bondi, Simon, Dessau, 1818. Carmoly, Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1874. Chwolson, Daniel, Wilna, 1897. Cohen, Joshua, by Cyrus Adler, Baltimore, 1887. Costa, Da, Amsterdam, 1816. Dubno, Solomon, Amsterdam, 1814. Eger, Samuel, Hanover, 1843. Embden, Hartog, Amsterdam, 1856. Emden, Jacob, , by M. Roest, ib. 1867. Esseus, Man van, ib. 1889. Feibel, Solomon, Erlangen (?), 1804. Ghirondi, by M. Steinschneider, Berlin, 1872. Halberstamm, , Vienna, 1890. Heidenheim, Rödelheim, 1833. Heinemann, Jeremiah, Leipsic [1854?]. Holdheim, Berlin, 1866. Jacob ben Saul, Amsterdam, 1816. Jacobsohn, Meïr, , ib. 1864. Jeshurun, Solomon, ib. 1811. Jonghe, Wolf de, ib. 1839. Lehmans, Moses, ib. 1832. Lehren, ib. 1899. Leeser, by Cyrus Adler, Philadelphia, 1883. Leuwarden, Jacob, ib. 1797. Levi, Rofe, Amsterdam, 1789. Lion, A., Berlin, 1863. Lipmans, Meïr, Amsterdam, 1825. Lotze, Leipsic, 1876. Löwenstam, ib. 1846. Luna, Anshel Norden de, ib. 1797. Luzzatto, by Joseph Luzzatto, Padua, 1868. Merzbacher, , by R. N. Rabbinowicz, Munich, 1888. Mesa, Solomon de, The Hague, 1743.Michael, , Hamburg, 1848. Nathan Aaron of Schwerin, 1780. Nepi, Lemberg, 1873. Oma, Ḥayyim, Amsterdam, 1834. Oppenheimer, by Berend, Hamburg, 1782. , by Israel Metz, Hamburg, 1826. Pinner, Berlin, 1861(?). Pinsker, , by Judah Bardach, Vienna, 1868. Raḥmanuth, Abraham, Amsterdam, 1837. Ruben Solomon, , by Gabriel Polak, ib. 1857. Rubens, , ib. 1864. Saravel, by M. Steinschneider, Triest, 1853. Selig ben Pharez, Amsterdam, 1835. Straschun, , Berlin, 1889. Sulzberger, Mayer, , by E. Deinard, New York, 1896. Torres-Nunes, The Hague, 1728. Zedner, Joseph, Berlin, 1872.

The most interesting catalogues published by booksellers have been: Asher, Berlin, 1868. Benzian, by Steinschneider, ib. 1869, 1870, 1872. Bislicher Brothers, , by L. Zunz, with notes by S. Sachs, ib. 1850. Bodenheimer, Leipsic, 1869. Harassowitz, Otto, No. 30, ib. 1877. Kaufmann, Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1870, 1873 et seq. Köhler, No. 168, Leipsic, 1868. Levison, Amsterdam, 1858. Müller, , ib. 1868 et seq. Proops, , ib. 1758, 1780, 1784, 1840, 1843. Rabbinowicz, N. R., Munich, 1888 (?).

J. I. Br.
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