German librarian and historian; born Aug. 5, 1871, at Filehne, Posen. He is the son of Israel Meïr Freimann, and grandson, on his mother's side, of the chief rabbi of Altona, Jacob Ettlinger. He attended the high school of Ostrowo, and in 1893 entered the University of Berlin (Ph. D., 1896), where he studied history and Oriental languages, devoting himself at the same time to the study of archival and library systems. Since 1897 he has been chief of the Hebrew department at the Stadtbibliotek in Frankfort-on-the-Main, and since 1900 one of the editors of "Zeitschrift für Hebräische Bibliographie." He is the author of "Die Isagoge des Porphyrius in den Syrischen Uebersetzungen" (1896), and "Geschichte der Israelitischen Gemeinde Ostrowo" (1896). To the "Ḳobeẓ al-Yad," a collective work published by the Meḳiẓe Nirdamim Society, he contributed articles on the history of the Jews in Prague

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