Austrian physician; born at Pardubitz, Bohemia, Sept. 28, 1855. He received his education at the gymnasium at Königgrätz and the University of Vienna, obtaining the degree of doctor of medicine in 1879. In the same year he became junior assistant at the general hospital at Vienna, and in 1882 assistant to Professor Stricker in experimental pathology, occupying the latter position until 1891. He was admitted to the medical faculty of his alma mater in 1886 as privat-docent, and in 1890 was appointed assistant professor, which position he now holds.

Gärtner has paid particular attention to the use of electricity in medicine, and has invented several instruments: the "elektrisches Zweizellenbad" (electrical bath with two cells); the kaolin rhcostat; the tonometer, an instrument for measuring the pressure of the blood; the ergostat, etc. He has contributed many essays to the medical journals, among which may be mentioned: "Ueber die Beziehung Zwischen Nierenerkrankungen und Oedœmen," in "Wiener Medizinische Zeitung," 1883; "Das Electrisches Zweizellenbad," in "Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift." 1889, No. 44; "Der Kaolin Rheostat," ib. 1890, No. 6; with F. Römer, "Ueber die Einwirkung von Tuberkulin und Andern Bakterien-Extracten auf den Lymphstrom," ib. 1892, No. 2; with A. Beck, "Ueber den Einfluss der Intravenösen Kochsalzeinspritzung auf die Resorption von Flüssigkeiten," ib. 1893, No. 31; "Ueber ein Neues Instrument zur Intensitätsmessung des Auskultationsphänomen," ib. 1894, No. 44; "Ueber Electrische Medizinalbäder," ib. 1895, Nos. 33 and 34; with J.Wagner, "Die Lehre vom Hirnkreislauf," ib. 1899, No. 26; "Ueber Intravenöse Sauerstoffingestionen," ib. 1902, Nos. 27, 28.

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