French physician; born at Neusatz (Ujvidék), Hungary, Oct. 10, 1810; died in Paris Nov. 16, 1898. He studied medicine at the University of Vienna, and graduated in 1834. Although at that time a Jew was rarely permitted to hold a position in the university hospital, Gruby was appointed assistant surgeon upon the recommendation of the well-known physician Wattmann. Soon after, he went to London, and in 1839 to Paris, where he engaged in private practise.

Gruby was one of the leaders in microscopical research, and gave free public lectures, which were largely attended, on microscopy, experimental physiology, and pathology. The results of his experiments are embodied in: "Observationes Microscopicæ ad Morphologiam Pathologicam Spectantes," Vienna, 1839; and "Morphologia Fluidorum Pathologicorum," ib. 1840.

As a practitioner Gruby was very successful. He was physician to the younger Dumas and to Heinrich Heine.

  • Hirsch, Biog. Lex. s.v.;
  • Pagel, Biog. Lex. s.v.
S. F. T. H.
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