German philologist and writer; born at Bojanowo, Prussian Poland, 1809; died at Breslau Jan. 5, 1854. He studied philology and philosophy at Breslau and Berlin; and in 1837 passed his examination and became a teacher at the Kollinsche Gymnasium in Berlin. The following two years he spent in Paris, studying especially Leibnitz's works, and then returned to Germany to become librarian of the University of Breslau. He became privat-docent in 1842, and professor in 1843, which position he held until his death.

Among his works may be mentioned; "Mémoire sur le Projet de Leibnitz Relatif à l'Expedition d'Egypte Proposé à Louis XIV. en 1672," Paris, 1839; "Kurmainz in der Epoche von 1672," Hamburg, 1839; "Lessings Erziehung des Menschengeschlechts, Kritisch und Philosophisch Erörtert," ib. 1841; "Das Heptaplomeres des Jean Bodin," ib. 1841; "G. W. v. Leibnitz, eine Biographie," Breslau, 1842, Supplement 1846; "Joachim Jungius und Sein Zeitalter," Stuttgart, 1850. He edited "Leibnitz's Deutsche Schriften" (1838-40), and "Goethe's Briefwechsel mit Knebel" (Leipsic, 1851), and completed Lessing's biography, begun by Danzel (2 vols., Leipsic, 1853).

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