Christian historian and jurist; born at Cracow March 9, 1838; studied at the universities of Cracow and Vienna, and practised law at Cracow. In 1876 he was appointed docent, in 1882 assistant professor, and in 1893 professor, at Graz University. He is the author of a work on jurisprudence, and also of a work entitled "Prawodawstwo Polskie Wzgledem Zydow," which treats of Polish legislation concerning Jews. The author introduces new material and advances original views. According to him, the history of Poland is divided into three periods, the Pyast, Yagellon, and Elected King periods, in each of which the three estates, king, clergy, and legislature, were in constant, frequently in violent, opposition. In the first period the legislative power was in the hands of the king, in the second in the hands of the nobility, and in the third in the hands of the Catholic clergy and of the Jesuits. The kings, the autḥor is inclined to believe, were generally favorably disposed toward the Jews, while the nobility was not altogether unfavorably disposed toward them. The third period is that of the domination of the clergy and of the Jesuits.The views of the clergy as regards the Jews always remained the same, but until the third period they lacked the power to enforce them. On assuming the education of the Polish youth the clergy taught them to regard the Jews as the enemies of the Church (see Poland).

  • Bershadski, Litovskiye Yevrei, p. 135, St. Petersburg, 1883.
H. R. J. G. L.
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