HA-MELIẒ (lit. "the interpreter," but used in Neo-Hebrew in the sense of "advocate"):

The oldest Hebrew newspaper in Russia. It was foundedby Alexander Zederbaum, in Odessa, in 1860, as a weekly, and was transferred to St. Petersburg in 1871. Its publication was several times suspended for lack of support or by order of the authorities; but it was always revived by the resource and energy of Zederbaum. "Ha-Meliẓ" began to appear daily in 1886; it is the only Hebrew daily paper published in the Russian capital. Leon Rabinowitz, who succeeded Zederbaum in 1893, is the editor (1903). "Ha-Meliẓ" has always been a representative of the progressive or "haskalah" movement, and even so severe a critic as Kowner admits that "it has been more useful to the Jews than have the other Hebrew newspapers" ("Ḥeḳer Dabar," pp. 52 et seq., Warsaw, 1866). While it is not so literary or scientific as some of its contemporaries, it usually has more news and discussions of interest, and is consequently more popular.

Dr. J. A. Goldenblum was for many years associated with Zederbaum in its publication. A. S. Friedberg and J. L. Gordon are the best known of its associate editors. Almost every prominent Hebrew writer of the last forty years has at one time or another contributed to it. "Ḳohelet" (St. Petersburg, 1881), "Migdonot" (ib. 1883), "Meliẓ Aḥad Minni Elef" (on the occasion of the appearance of No. 1,000; ib. 1884), "Leḳeṭ Amarim" (ib. 1889), and "Arba'ah Ma'amarim" (ib. 1893) are collections of literary and scientific articles which appeared as supplements to "Ha-Meliẓ" in Zederbaum's time. "Ha-Yeḳeb"(ib. 1894), "Ha-Osem" and "Ha-Gat" (ib. 1897), and "Ha-Gan" (ib. 1899) are similar publications issued by Zederbaum's successor.

J. P. Wi.
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