German Orientalist and explorer; born Feb. 25, 1867, at Krotoschin, Prussia. In 1885 he entered the University of Berlin, and he graduated at the University of Leipsic (Ph. D.) in 1889. In 1891 he established himself at Berlin University as lecturer in Central Asiatic languages and in Buddhism. In 1897 he undertook a journey to Siberia for the purpose of studying Tungusic, receiving a subvention from the Imperial Academy of Sciences of St. Petersburg. He went to eastern Turkestan with the Turfan expedition of the Königliches Museum für Völkerkunde of Berlin, in 1902, and spent the following year in western Turkestan studying Turkish dialects and folk-lore. He has published, among others, the following works: "Die Zeit des Kālidāsa" (Berlin, 1889): "The Chandoratnākara of Ratnākaraçānti" (Sanskrit text with Tibetan transl.), a work on Sanskrit prosody (ib. 1890); "Gesch. des Buddhismus in der Mongolei: aus dem Tibetischen des 'Jigs-med-nam-mkha" (vol. i., Tibetan text; vol. ii., German transl., Strasburg, 1892-96); "Die Inschriften von Tsaghan Baišing," Tibet-Mongolian text with linguistic and historical notes, printed at the expense of the Deutsche Morgenländische Gesellschaft (Leipsic, 1894); "Die Tungusische Volkslitteratur und Ihre Ethnologische Ausbeute," in the Bulletin of the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences (1901).

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