—Biblical Data:

In II Sam. xxiii. 8 et seq., in which the names of David's heroes are recorded, occur two mysterious words, (according to the ḳeri), which came to be regarded as the designation of one of the heroes. They are thus interpreted in the Septuagint, which was followed by numerous other versions. The two words clearly represent a textual corruption for —that is, "brandishing his spear," as the parallel passage (I Chron. xi. 11) correctly reads—and instead of being a proper name, are merely descriptive of Yosheb Bashshebet (a euphemism for Esh-baal) the Tachmonite, mentioned at the beginning of the verse.

  • Wellhausen, Text der Bücher Samuelis, p. 212;
  • Budde in his edition of Samuel, ad loc. in S. B. O. T.
J. Jr.—In Rabbinical Literature:

According to a Haggadah, this name is only a designation of David to denote two of his principal virtues. On account of his modesty he is called 'Adino ("pliant like a worm") because he bowed down and crawled in the dust before pious men and scholars. For his heroic deeds and his strength in battle he is called Ha-'Eẓni ("the man as strong as a tree []"; M. Ḳ. 16b). The Vulgate translation, "tenerrimus ligni vermiculus" (the most tender wood-worm), is based upon a somewhat different Haggadah. The Targum, on the other hand, also applies the name to David, but translates it as the one "adorned" with "weapons" ( and ).

L. G.
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