Russian city in the government of Courland. It has a population (1897) of 64,505, including 9,700 Jews. Among the latter are 3,225 artisans (1,309 being masters) and 117 day-laborers. Among its educational institutions are a government school for Jews (105 pupils), a Jewish general school for girls (90 pupils), and a Talmud Torall (108 pupils). The public schools have 333 Jewish children on their rolls. A Jewish loan and savings association was organized in 1901.

H. R. S. J.
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