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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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Isidore Singer, Ph.D.

MANAGING EDITOR, New York City.

Contributions:
SCHÖNHAK, JOSEPH – Russian author; born at Tiktin 1812; died at Suwalki Dec., 10, 1870. Schönhak led a retired life, devoting his time to writing and study. He was the author of "Toledot ha-Areẓ" (Warsaw, 1841) and "Ha-Mashbir," or "'Aruk...
SCHORR, NAPHTALI MENDEL – Galician Hebrew writer; died at Lemberg Dec. 14, 1883. He was the founder (1861) of the Hebrew weekly "Ha-'Et," of which only twenty-two numbers appeared. In 1855 he edited in Lemberg Jedaiah Bedersi's "Beḥinat ha-'Olam" and...
SCHOSSBERGER DE TORNA,. SIMON WOLF – Hungarian merchant and estate-owner; born 1796 at Sasvar (Sassin, Schossberg, Comitat Nyitra); died at Budapest March 25, 1874. Through his many commercial, industrial, and agricultural enterprises he attained wealth and honor;...
SCHOTT (SCHOTTLÄNDER), BENEDICT (BARUCH) – German educationist; born in Danzig March 11, 1763 (or 1764); died at Seesen July 21, 1846. Left an orphan at an early age, he wandered through Germany as a scholar ("baḥur"), and among other places sojourned in Glogau, Breslau,...
SCHOTTLÄNDER, JULIUS – German merchant; born at Münsterberg, Silesia, March 22, 1835; educated at the public schools of his native town and at Breslau. He established himself as a wool- and grain-merchant in Münsterberg; but in 1859 removed his...
SCHOTTLÄNDER, JULIUS – German gynecologist; born at St. Petersburg April 12, 1860. Studying at the universities of Munich and Heidelberg, he graduated as doctor of medicine in 1887. During the following two years he was assistant to Kehr in...
SCHREINER, ABRAHAM – Austrian discoverer of petroleum; born in Galicia in the second decade of the nineteenth century; died after 1870. He was a merchant in Boryslaw, where he possessed some land. On this land was a hollow from which exuded a...
SCHREINER, MARTIN – Hungarian rabbi; born at Grosswardein July 8, 1863; educated at the local gymnasium and the rabbinical seminary and at the University of Budapest (Ph.D. 1885; rabbinical diploma, 1887). From 1887 to 1890 he officiated as rabbi...
SCHREYER, JAKOB – Hungarian jurist; born Feb. 7, 1847, in Ugra. He studied at Nagyvarad, Debreczin, Budapest, and Vienna (Doctor of Law, 1870), and was admitted to the bar at Budapest in 1872. He is (1905) a member of the aldermanic board, and...
SCHUHL, MOÏSE – French rabbi; born at Westhausen, Alsace, May 2, 1845. He received his education at the lyceum at Strasburg and at the Rabbinical Seminary, Paris, becoming rabbi at Saint-Etienne in 1870, chief rabbi of Vesoul in 1888, and chief...
SCHULBAUM, MOSES – Austrian Hebraist; born at Jezierzany, Galicia, April 25, 1835. His mother was a descendant of Ḥakam Ẓebi. At an early age he devoted himself to the study of Hebrew, and in 1870 entered the printing-house of Michael Wolf at...
SCHULHOFF, JULIUS – Austrian pianist and composer; born at Prague Aug. 2, 1825; died at Berlin March 15, 1898. Kisch and Tedesco were his teachers in piano, and he studied theory under Tomaschek. He made his début at Dresden in 1842, and later...
SCHULMANN, LUDWIG – German philologist and writer; born at Hildesheim 1814; died at Hanover July 24, 1870. He studied philology at the University of Göttingen, and then taught for a time in his native city. In 1842 he began to advocate the...
SCHWAB, LÖW – Moravian rabbi; born at Krumau, Moravia, March 11, 1794; died April 3, 1857; pupil of R. Mordecai Benet in Nikolsburg, R. Moses Sofer in Presburg, R. Joshua Horwitz in Trebitsch, and R. Joachim Deutschmann in Gewitsch. He held...
SCHWAB, MOÏSE – French librarian and author; born at Paris Sept. 18, 1839; educated at the Jewish school and the Talmud Torah at Strasburg. From 1857 to 1866 he was secretary to Salomon Munk; then for a year he was official interpreter at the...
SCHWALBE, GUSTAV – German anatomist and anthropologist; born at Quedlinburg Aug. 1, 1844. Educated at the universities of Berlin, Zurich, and Bonn (M.D. 1866), he became in 1870 privat-docent at the University of Halle, in 1871 privat-docent and...
SCHWARZ, ADOLF – Austrian theologian; born July, 1846, at Adász-Tevel, near Papa, Hungary. He received his early instruction in the Talmud from his father, who was a rabbi. He then went to the gymnasium in Papa, and subsequently entered the...
SCHWARZ, GUSTAV – Hungarian lawyer; born at Budapest 1858; educated in his native city and at German universities. In 1884 he became privat-docent in Roman law at Budapest, being appointed assistant professor nine years later, and professor in...
SCHWARZ, ISRAEL – German rabbi; born at Hürben, Bavaria, March 15, 1830; died at Cologne Jan. 4, 1875; educated by his father, R. Joachim Schwarz of Hürben. At the age of eighteen he passed the state examination for Bavarian rabbis, and was then...
SCHWARZ, JOSEPH – Joseph Schwarz.Palestinian geographer; born at Flosz, Bavaria, Oct. 22, 1804; died at Jerusalem Feb. 5, 1865. When he was seventeen years old he graduated as teacher from the Königliches Schullehrerseminar of Colberg, after...
SCHWARZFELD – Rumanian family which became prominent in the nineteenth century.Benjamin Schwarzfeld: Rumanian educator and writer; father of Elias, Moses, and Wilhelm Schwarzfeld; born April, 1822; died at Jassy Nov. 27, 1896. After...
SCHWOB (MAYER ANDRĖ), MARCEL – French journalist; born at Chaville (Seine-et-Oise) Aug. 23, 1867; died at Paris Feb. 27, 1905. He received his early instruction at Nantes, where his father was editor of the "Phare de la Loire." Settling in Paris, he became...
SCRIBES – Origin and Meaning. 1. Body of teachers whose office was to interpret the Law to the people, their organization beginning with Ezra, who was their chief, and terminating with Simeon the Just. The original meaning of the Hebrew...
SECCHI, PABLO MARINI – Italian Christian merchant; lived at Rome in the sixteenth century. He made a wager with a Jew, Samson Ceneda, that Santo Domingo would be conquered. The terms of the wager were that in the event of Ceneda losing he was to give...
SÉE – A family of Alsatian origin whose most important members are:Abraham Adolphe Sée: French barrister; born in Colmar, Alsace, 1819; died in Paris Feb. 26, 1905; brother of Marc Sée and Gustave Sée. He was educated in his native...