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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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Gotthard Deutsch, Ph.D.

Professor of Jewish History, Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Contributions:
LUXEMBURG – Early History. Grand duchy of central Europe, its capital bearing the same name. The sources do not definitely indicate when Jews first settled in Luxemburg. The first record of a Jew residing there occurs in a document of the...
LUZZATTO (LUZZATTI) – Name of a family of Italian scholars whose genealogy can be traced back to the first half of the sixteenth century. According to a tradition communicated by S. D. Luzzatto the family descends from a German who immigrated into...
MAARSSEN, JOSEPH BEN JACOB – Dutch scholar and publisher; member of a family of printers; lived at Amsterdam in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Maarssen published the following works: (1) A Judæo-German translation, by himself, from the Dutch of...
MAGDEBURG – Under the Archbishop. Capital of the Prussian province of Saxony; situated on the Elbe. It has a population of 229,633, of whom about 2,000 are Jews. There were Jews at Magdeburg as early as the tenth century. The district...
MAGINO, MEïR DI GABRIELE – French silk-manufacturer; lived at Venice. In 1587 he went to Rome to promote the manufacture of silk, which had been begun in that city; and on June 4 of the same year the monopoly of silk-manufacture by his improved process...
MAGNUS, MARKUS – Elder of the Jewish congregation of Berlin in the first quarter of the eighteenth century; court Jew to the crown prince, afterward King Frederick William I. The Jewish community of Berlin was divided into two hostile camps by...
MAHAMAD – Rules of Election. The board of directors of a Spanish-Portuguese congregation. The word is of Neo-Hebrew origin, and in the Talmud is applied to the representatives of the people present at the Temple service (Ta'an. 15b). The...
MÄHRISH-OSTRAU – Town in Moravia, Austria. The congregation of Mährish-Ostrau is one of the youngest in Moravia, for Jews were not allowed to settle there until 1792, and it was not until 1848, when general freedom of residence was granted, that...
MAJOR, SOLOMON IBN – Turkish rabbi; flourished toward the end of the sixteenth century at Salonica, where he was head of the yeshibah. Many distinguished rabbis were Major's pupils, among them being Joseph Florentin, Abraham Falcon, and his own son...
MAKO – Town in Hungary, in the county of Csanad. It has a total population of 33,722, of which 1,642 are Jews (1900). Jews began to settle there about the middle of the eighteenth century, under the protection of Stanislavich, the...
MAKSHAN, SAMUEL BEN PHINEHAS HA-KOHEN – Bohemian Talmudist of the sixteenth century; born in Prague. He wrote: "Teḥillat Dibre Shemuel," commentary on the Targum of Esther (Prague, 1594 [according to Zunz, "Z. G." p. 278; 1601 according to other bibliographers]); "Bet...
MAMRAN – A check; an expression used by Polish Jews from the end of the sixteenth to the beginningof the nineteenth century. The word is derived from "membrana," Low Latin equivalent for "promissory note." It was first used by Mordecai...
MANDL, CHRISTOF – Hungarian author; converted to Christianity in 1534. His godfather was George, Margrave of Brandenburg, to whom Mandl dedicated his "Dass Jesus Christus Sey das Ewig Wort" (1536), in which Jesus is represented as the Redeemer....
MANISSA – Town in the Turkish vilayet of Aidin, twenty-eight miles northeast of Smyrna. It has a population of 40,000, of whom 1,800 are Jews (against 1,200 in 1838). The community there is said to be older than that of Smyrna. Richard...
MANNHEIM – Town in the grand duchy of Baden, Germany. It has a population of 141, 131, including 5,478 Jews (1900). Jews are not known to have lived in Mannheim before the middle of the seventeenth century. On Sept. 1, 1660, thirteen...
MANTINO, JACOB BEN SAMUEL – Italian physician; died at Damascus in 1549. His parents—and perhaps Mantino himself—were natives of Tortosa, Spain, which place they left at the time of the banishment of the Jews from Spain (1492). Mantino studied medicine and...
MANTUA – Under the Gonzagas. Fortified Italian city, on the Mincio; capital of the duchy of Mantua. It has a population of 29,160, including 1,100 Jews (1901). In 1858 it had 2,523 Jews—the greatest number in its history. The first...
MARBURG – 1. Town in the Prussian province of Hesse-Nassau. Jews are first mentioned as living in Marburg in a document dated May 13, 1317, which indicates that they were then organized as a community and possessed a synagogue; also that...
MARBURG – 1. Town in the Prussian province of Hesse-Nassau. Jews are first mentioned as living in Marburg in a document dated May 13, 1317, which indicates that they were then organized as a community and possessed a synagogue; also that...
MARCELLO, BENEDETTO – Italian musician; born at Venice 1686; died there 1739. He is particularly celebrated for his settings to the Psalms, fifty of which, under the title of "Estro Poetico-Armonico, Parafrasi Sopra li Salmi," were published at...
MARGALITA, AARON – Polish convert to Christianity; born 1663 at Zolkiev. He was a learned rabbi, and traveled as a maggid in Poland and Germany, preaching in the synagogues. In Holland he remained for seven years teaching rabbinics at Leyden. He...
MARGARITA, ANTONIUS – Convert to Christianity in the first half of the sixteenth century; born about 1500 at Ratisbon (Regensburg), where his father, Jacob Margolioth, was rabbi; died at Vienna; baptized in 1522 at Wasserburg, Bavaria. He was teacher...
MARGOLIOTH – Polish family of Talmudic scholars that traces its descent from Rashi, on the one side, and from the families of Shor and Samuel Edels on the other. The first Margolioth known was Samuel, dayyan at Posen about 1550; one of his...
MARGOLIOTH – Polish family of Talmudic scholars that traces its descent from Rashi, on the one side, and from the families of Shor and Samuel Edels on the other. The first Margolioth known was Samuel, dayyan at Posen about 1550; one of his...
MARGOLIOTH – Polish family of Talmudic scholars that traces its descent from Rashi, on the one side, and from the families of Shor and Samuel Edels on the other. The first Margolioth known was Samuel, dayyan at Posen about 1550; one of his...