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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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Gotthard Deutsch, Ph.D.

Professor of Jewish History, Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Contributions:
MARGOLIOTH – Polish family of Talmudic scholars that traces its descent from Rashi, on the one side, and from the families of Shor and Samuel Edels on the other. The first Margolioth known was Samuel, dayyan at Posen about 1550; one of his...
MARINI, SOLOMON B. ISAAC – Italian rabbi of the seventeenth century; died in 1670. He was the only rabbi at Padua who survived the plague of 1631, which decimated the community. His wisdom and his eloquence contributed much to the restoration of order. He...
MARLI – Italian Talmudist and liturgist of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. According to S. D. Luzzatto, the name "Marli" means "of Arles" (Steinschneider, "Hebr. Bibl." iv. 97, v. 46). Marli was the head of the yeshibah of...
MARSEILLES – Seaport of southern France with about 5,000 Jews in a population (1896) of 420,300. It had a Jewish colony as early as the fifth century, and in 567 a number of exiles from Clermont, Auvergne, sought refuge there from the...
MARTINIQUE – Island in the West Indies, now constituting a French colony. In the beginning of the seventeenth century a number of Dutch Jews settled at Martinique and in the neighboring islands, and were in very prosperous circumstances when...
MASKIL – 1. A title of honor used principally in Italy. The word "maskil," with the meaning of "scholar" or "enlightened man," was used by Isaac Israeli, who died in 1326 ("my colleagues, the maskilim"; "Yesod 'Olam," ii. 11, Berlin,...
MATTERSDORF, JOAB BEN JEREMIAH – Hungarian rabbi; died about 1807. Through the influence of Aaron Chorin, a disciple of his father, he became rabbi of Deutschkreuz, near Mattersdorf, Hungary. He wrote "Ḥen Ṭob" (Zolkiev, 1806), commentary on a part of the code...
MAYENCE – German city in the grand duchy of Hesse-Darmstadt; on the left bank of the Rhine; the seat of an archbishop, who was formerly one of the prince-electors of the Holy Roman Empire. It has a population of 84,251, of whom 3,200 are...
MAYER, MORITZ – German rabbi; born at Dürckheim-on-the-Hardt, Germany, Dec. 16, 1821; died at New York Aug. 28, 1867. He studied law at Munich, and entered on the practise of his profession in his native city, when the revolution of 1848 broke...
MEAT-TAX – In Austria, as everywhere else, the Jewish communities imposed a tax on meat, the revenue from which was used for communal purposes. During the eighteenth century, however, the national government used this method of raising a...
MECKLENBURG – Early Settlement. Territory in North Germany; bounded on the north by the Baltic Sea. Formerly it constituted one duchy, but since 1701 it has been divided into Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Mecklenburg-Strelitz, forming two separate...
MECKLENBURG – Early Settlement. Territory in North Germany; bounded on the north by the Baltic Sea. Formerly it constituted one duchy, but since 1701 it has been divided into Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Mecklenburg-Strelitz, forming two separate...
MEDINA – Prominent Jewish family, members of which lived during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries chiefly in Turkey and Egypt. Most probably it took its name from one of the two Spanish cities named Medina.The following is a...
MEÏR CALW (CALVO; – Biblical commentator; the country and year of his birth are unknown. As he quotes Levi b. Gershon it may be assumed that he lived not earlier than the fifteenth century. Meïr Calw was the author of a commentary on the Pentateuch...
MEÏR ḲADOSH (MEÏR BEN JEHIEL BRODA) – Moravian Talmudist; born at Ungarisch-Brod in 1593. He is known for his "Megillat R. Meïr" (Cracow, 1632), in which he narrates an adventure which happened to him when he was fifteen years old, and on account of which he...
MEISEL – Bohemian family which became famous chiefly through Mordecai Marcus b. Samuel Meisel, "primate" of Prague. The family seems to have come originally from Cracow, to whose community Mordecai Meisel bequeathed large sums for...
MEISEL – Bohemian family which became famous chiefly through Mordecai Marcus b. Samuel Meisel, "primate" of Prague. The family seems to have come originally from Cracow, to whose community Mordecai Meisel bequeathed large sums for...
MEISEL – Bohemian family which became famous chiefly through Mordecai Marcus b. Samuel Meisel, "primate" of Prague. The family seems to have come originally from Cracow, to whose community Mordecai Meisel bequeathed large sums for...
MELLI – Family of scholars and rabbis that derived its name from Melli, an Italian village in the province of Mantua. The family can be traced back to the fifteenth century.Eliezer Melli: Rabbi of Venice in the sixteenth century. He is...
MEMEL – City in the district of Königsberg, East Prussia. It has a population of 19,796, including 1,214 Jews (1900). The earliest mention of the Jews of Memel occurs in connection with the adjournment of the diet by Duke Albrecht April...
MENAHEM BEN JAIR – Leader of the Sicarh. He was a grandson of Judas of Galilee, the founder of the Zealot party, of which the Sicarii were a branch. Menahem checked the lawlessness of the Sicarii, who, under his leadership, in 66 C.E., stormed the...
MENAHEM B. MOSES TAMAR – Poet and commentator; probably a pupil of Mordecai Comtino of Constantinople; flourished in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries at Adrianople or Philippopolis. He wrote commentaries to the books of Proverbs, Ruth, and Esther,...
MENDE – Capital of the ancient county of Gévaudan; now chief town in the department of Lozère, France. In the twelfth century a Jewish community existed here, having a synagogue, whose ruins still (1904) remain. In 1307 a contention...
MENDEL – Name of a prominent Hungarian family which flourished in the latter half of the fifteenth century and in the first half of the sixteenth in Ofen (Buda). Members of three generations of it are known; namely, Jacob, Israel, and...
MENDELSSOHN – German family rendered illustrious by the philosopher and the musician. It can not verify its ancestry further back than the father of the philosopher, though there is a family tradition that it is descended from Moses...