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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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Gotthard Deutsch, Ph.D.

Professor of Jewish History, Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Contributions:
MENDELSSOHN – German family rendered illustrious by the philosopher and the musician. It can not verify its ancestry further back than the father of the philosopher, though there is a family tradition that it is descended from Moses...
MENDES (MENDEZ) – Netherlandish family; one of the thirty prominent Jewish families which emigrated from Spain to Portugal under the leadership of the aged rabbi Isaac Aboab, and to which King John II. assigned the city of Oporto as a residence....
MENDES-NASI, FRANCISCO – Member of one of the richest and most respected Portuguese Marano families; died about 1536; husband of Beatrice de Luna. He owned a large banking-house in Lisbon, which had branches in Flanders and France, and which advanced...
MENDESIA, GRACIA – Philanthropist; born about 1510, probably in Portugal; died at Constantinople 1569; member of the Spanish family of Benveniste. As a Maranoshe was married to her coreligionist Francisco Mendes-Nasi. After the early death of her...
MENZ, ABRAHAM JOSEPH BEN SIMON WOLF – Rabbi at Frankfort-on-the-Main at the beginning of the eighteenth century. He wrote an elementary text-book on mathematics entitled "Reshit Limmudim," in three parts: (1) "Kelale Handasah," the general rules of algebra; (2)...
MEQUINEZ – Town in the interior of Morocco, about 35 miles west-southwest of Fez. It contains about 6,000 Jews in a total population of 50,000. But very little is known concerning the Jews there. The town was founded about 940 C.E. As was...
MESHULLAM BEN JOEL HA-KOHEN – Galician Talmudist; died at Lemberg Sept. 25, 1809. At first rabbi at Zurawno (Galicia), he was called to Koretz to succeed his brother Isaac; he then went to Bolechow, and finally to Lemberg. Meshullam's Talmudic attainments...
MESSER, LEON (JUDAH BEN JEHIEL ROFE) – Italian rabbi, physician, and philosopher; flourished in Mantua in the latter half of the fifteenth century. He is said to have been born in Naples. The name "Leon" is the usual equivalent of "Judah" and "Messer" (= "Maestro"),...
METZ – Early Conditions. German fortified city in Lorraine; it has a population of 58,462, including 1,451 Jews. According to ancient chronicles, Jews had settled in Metz in the year 221; they enjoyed municipal freedom, and lived on...
METZ, ISAAC – German scholar; lived at Hamburg in the first half of the nineteenth century. He compiled a catalogue, entitled "Ḳehillat Dawid," of David Oppenheimer's library (translated into Latin by Lazar Embden, Hamburg, 1826). To this...
MEYER, FRIEDERICH CHRISTIAN – Jewish convert to Christianity; born at Hamburg in the second half of the seventeenth century; died in Belgium about 1738. After having been baptized at Bremen, he became a missionary and traveled for thirty years. He was the...
MICHEL JUD – A public character prominent in his day for wealth and influence; born about the end of the fifteenth century at Derenburg, near Halberstadt; died in 1549. He was described as of imposing appearance and eloquent of speech, and...
MIELZINER, MOSES – American rabbi and author; born at Schubin, province of Posen, Germany, Aug. 12, 1828; died at Cincinnati Feb. 18, 1903. His father, Benjamin, rabbi in his native town, gave him the first instruction in Talmudic literature,...
MIESES – A family of German and Austrian scholars of the nineteenth century, of which the following are prominent members:Fabius Mieses: Galician litterateur and philosopher; born at Brody Oct. 31, 1824; died at Leipsic Oct. 10, 1898. Up...
MINZ – Family of rabbis and scholars, deriving its name from the town of Mayence and founded in the fifteenth century. The family tree is as follows: Judah b. Eliezer ha-Levi Minz (Minzi), the progenitor of the most prominent branch of...
MIRABEAU, GABRIEL HONORE RIQUETI, COMTE DE – French statesman of the revolutionary era; born at Bignon March 9, 1749; died at Paris April 2, 1791. Sent by De Calonne on a secret mission to Prussia, he became acquainted at Berlin with several distinguished Jews belonging to...
MIRELS, MESHULLAM ZALMAN BEN DAVID (NEUMARK) – German rabbi; born about 1620 at Vienna; died Nov. 28, 1706, at Altona. When, in 1670, the Jews were expelled from Vienna, he and his son Zeeb Wolf and other members of the Mirels family emigrated to Berlin. A few years later...
MOD'AI – Family of Turkish authors.Ḥayyim Mod'ai (the Elder): Rabbinical author; born at Safed 1709; died there 1784. He was sent by the Safed community to Europe to collect ḥaluḳḳah. From 1755 to 1776 he lived at Constantinople,...
MODEL, MARX – Court Jew to Margrave William Frederick of Brandenburg-Ansbach (1703-1723) From 1691 Model and his family were exempt from the payment of duties on the goods which they imported, and in the same year were given the privilege of...
MODIANO, JOSEPH SAMUEL – Turkish rabbinical author; lived at Salonica at the end of the eighteenth century. He belonged to a family originally from Modena, Italy, the descendants of which are prominent in financial and industrial enterprise in Salonica....
MOGADOR – Seaport of Morocco, on the Atlantic; founded by Sidi Mohammed ibn Abdallah in 1759. It has a total population of 19,000, including 10,000 Jews. Mogador is divided into three parts: the Ḳaṣbah, where the governor, some...
MÖLLN (MOLIN) – Name of a family of Mayence. The name , which, according to D. Kaufmann ("Der Grabstein des R. Jacob ben Moses ha-Levi," in "Monatsschrift," xlii. 26), is to be read "Molin" rather than "Mölln," is not intended to indicate the...
MOLO, FRANCISCO – Dutch financier and statesman; lived in the seventeenth century. In 1679 he settled in Amsterdam as financial agent of John III., King of Poland, a fact which hardly agrees with De Barrios' statement ("Panegyrico al Laureado...
MOMMSEN, CHRISTIAN MATTHIAS THEODOR – Jurist, archeologist, and historian; born Nov. 30, 1817, at Garding, Sleswick-Holstein; died Nov. 1, 1903, at Charlottenburg, near Berlin. His most important work is his "Römische Gesch." (vol. i., 9th ed., Berlin, 1903; vols....
MONASTIR – Capital of Rumelia, European Turkey; 400 miles west of Constantinople; the ancient Vitolia. It has a population of 65,000, including 6,000 Jews. There are no documents referring to Jews in Monastir before the arrival of the...