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Emil G. Hirsch, Ph.D., LL.D.

Rabbi, Sinai Congregation; Professor of Rabbinical Literature and Philosophy, University of Chicago; Chicago, Ill.

Contributions:
HOSPITALITY – Biblical Data: The "ger," the sojourner who lived with a Hebrew family or clan, was assured by the Biblical law not only of protection against oppression (Ex. xxiii. 9) and deceit (Lev. xix. 33), but also of love from the...
HOST OF HEAVEN – Term occurring several times in the Bible, but not always with a definite meaning. The word "ẓaba" usually designates an army, and thus connotes a vast body of organized and officered men; it conveys, however, also the meaning...
HOUSE – In the warm countries of the East the house is not so important a factor as it is in Western civilization, the climate permitting the Palestinian to live almost entirely in the open air. Artisans do not ply their trades in the...
HUKKOK – Place on the borders of Naphtali, near Aznot Tabor (Josh. xix. 34). As the frontier line coincided with the western limit of Asher (l.c.), it is probable that this place is identical with the Hukok that fell to the lot of Asher...
HULDAH – Biblical Data: Prophetess; wife of Shallum, the keeper of the wardrobe in the time of King Josiah. She dwelt in the second quarter of Jerusalem. It seems that Huldah enjoyed great consideration as a prophetess, for when Hilkiah...
HUR – 1. Biblical Data: Man of Judah, the grandfather of Bezaleel, the chief artificer of the Tabernacle (Ex. xxxi. 2, xxxv. 30, xxxviii. 22). According to the fuller genealogy in I Chron. ii. 18-20, he was the first-born son of...
HUR – 1. Biblical Data: Man of Judah, the grandfather of Bezaleel, the chief artificer of the Tabernacle (Ex. xxxi. 2, xxxv. 30, xxxviii. 22). According to the fuller genealogy in I Chron. ii. 18-20, he was the first-born son of...
HUSHAI – Companion of David, generally called the Archite. When David was pursued by Absalom he sent Hushai to frustrate Absalom's plans. Hushai pretended adherence to the cause of Absalom, and his advice, preferred to that of...
HYENA – Biblical Data: The translation by the Septuagint of "ẓabua'" (Jer. xii. 9); the rendering of the Vulgate being "avis tincta," and that of the English versions "speckled bird." The rendering of the LXX., which is adopted by most...
HYKSOS – Name of a line of Egyptian kings, occurring in a passage of Manetho quoted by Josephus ("Contra Ap." § 14). It is said that they ruled for 511 years. Manetho explains "hyk" as "kings" (which Josephus disputes) and "sos" as...
HYSSOP – There is great uncertainty as to what specific plant is intended either by the Hebrew "ezob" or by the Greek ύσσωπος, nor is it clear that the words are identical. The Greek ὕσσωπος was credited with purifying qualities (comp....
IBZAN – Judge of Israel for seven years after Jephthah; a native of Beth-lehem he had thirty sons and thirty daughters, and was buried in his native town (Judges xii. 8-10). As "Bethlehem" here is not followed by "Ephratah" or by...
ICHABOD – Son of Phinehas and grandson of Eli. Born after the death in battle of his father and the tragic death of his grandfather, he was named "Ichabod" ( = particle of negation; = "glory") by his dying mother, who exclaimed at the...
IDDO – A seer ( ), or prophet ( ), whose prophecies were directed against Jeroboam (II Chron. ix. 29). In the Masoretic text his name occurs as (ketib) and (ḳeri). He is quoted also (ib.) as an authority on the lives of Solomon,...
INCEST – Biblical Data: Marriage or carnal commerce between persons of a close degree of consanguinity. Even in modern times the connotation of "incestuous" is not the same in all countries. Among primitive and barbarous races there is a...
INK – The only passage in the Old Testament in which ink is mentioned is Jer. xxxvi. 18. It would evidently, however, be a mistake to conclude that it was unknown in earlier times, for in this passage "deyo" is spoken of as something...
INSECTS – Under this head are treated the species not described in separate articles under their individual names, as Ant; Bee; Beetle; Fly; Locust; etc.Centiped: The words "marbeh raglayim" (Lev. xi. 42), rendered by the Revised Version...
IRON – The invention of the art of working in brass and iron is ascribed to Tubal-cain (Gen. iv. 22), and thus placed in prehistoric times. The Israelites, therefore, derived their knowledge of the art from others. Further proof of...
IR-SHEMESH – A city of Dan, mentioned with Shaalabbin and Ajalon (Josh. xix. 41-42). Its parallel name in Judges (i 35, Hebr.) is "Har-Ḥeres" (the mountain of the sun). Some modern critics identify Ir-shemesh with Beth-shemesh, in Judah. See...
ISAIAH – Biblical Data: The greatest of the Hebrew prophets of whom literary monuments remain. He resided at Jerusalem, and so contrasts with Micah, the prophet of the country districts. He was married (Isa. viii. 3), and had children...
ISAIAH, BOOK OF – Illuminated Page of Isaiah from a Manuscript Bible, Said to Be of the Twelfth Century.(Lately in the possession of Henriques de Castro, Amsterdam.)The chief note of the Book of Isaiah is variety—variety of tone, of style, of...
ISH-BOSHETH – Fourth and youngest son of Saul, and, as the sole male survivor in direct line of descent, his legitimate successor to the throne (II Sam. ii. 8 et seq.). His original name was "Esh-baal (= "man of ba'al" [then, Yhwh]; see I...
ISRAEL, KINGDOM OF – In the article People of Israel the history of the Northern Kingdom in its wider relations is briefly set forth; here the details will be more fully sketched. The history may be divided into four periods. The first was a period...
ISRAEL, PEOPLE OF – In the Bible "Israel" is the national name of the people who are known racially as "Hebrews." In the tribal condition no comprehensive name was historically applied to the whole people. The story (Gen. xxxii. 24 et seq.) of the...
ISSACHAR – 1. Biblical Data: Ninth son of Jacob and fifth of Leah, born a considerable length of time after her other children (Gen. xxx. 17, 18; comp. xxix. 35). This name belongs to that class of words which, according to Masoretic...