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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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Isidore Singer, Ph.D.

MANAGING EDITOR, New York City.

Contributions:
SHKUD – Russian town in the government of Kovno, situated at the confluence of the rivers Bortava and Liwba. The earliest written information regarding the Jews in Shkud is found in their "pinḳes," which begins with the year 1725. No...
SHUMLA – City of Bulgaria. According to local tradition there was not a Jew at Shumla until about 1780; but in that year a pasha of Adrianople, having been appointed military governor of the city, brought with his regiment a Jewish...
SI'A (V11p317001.jpg), LEON JUDAH ARYEH (NASR AL DIN) – Physician in Constantinople, and a friend of Jewish science; lived before 1633. He translated Judah ha-Levi's "Cuzari" and Baḥya's "Ḥobot ha-Lebabot" from Arabic into Latin, which his friend Jacob Roman intended to print...
SICHEL, JULES – French oculist; born at Frankfort-on-the-Main 1802; died at Paris Nov. 14, 1868. He studied medicine at Berlin (M. D. 1825), and took a postgraduate course at Paris. In 1836 he established in the latter city an ophthalmic clinic...
SICHEL, NATHANEEL – German painter; born at Mayence Jan. 8, 1843. He studied in Munich at the Royal Academy of Art (1859-62) under Julius Schrader. In 1863 his picture entitled "Joseph Explains the Dreams of Pharaoh" won him a scholarship which...
SIEBENBERGER, ISAAC BEN DAVID – Russian Hebraist; died at Warsaw April 2, 1879. He occupied himself especially with apocryphal literature, his translations into Hebrew and Judæo-German including the following: "Ḥayye Ṭobiyah" (Warsaw, 1839), a translation of...
SIESBY, GOTTLIEB – Danish poet and editor; born in Copenhagen May 4, 1803; died there Nov. 28, 1884; brother of Oskar Siesby. His first publication was a collection of poems entitled "Lyriske Forsóg," which appeared in Copenhagen in 1826.Later he...
SIESBY, OSKAR – Danish philologist; born in Ebeltoft, Jutland, July 19, 1833; brother of Gottlieb Siesby. He graduated from the University of Copenhagen (B.A. 1850), and then took up the study of philology, passing in 1856 the
SILBERMAN, ELIEZER LIPMAN – German rabbi and Hebrew journalist; born in Königsberg, Prussia, Sept. 7, 1819; died in Lyck, Prussia, March 15, 1882. His parents were Russians who settled in Königsberg when Jews were admitted to that city during the...
SILBERSTEIN (ÖTVÖS), ADOLF – Hungarian art critic and writer; born at Budapest July 1, 1845; died there Jan. 12, 1899. After graduating from the gymnasium of his native city he studied philosophy and medicine at the University of Leipsic, comparative...
SILBERSTEIN, MICHAEL – German rabbi; born at Witzenhausen, Hesse-Nassau, Nov. 21, 1834; educated in his native town, in Hanover, at the Jewish Theological Seminary of Breslau (rabbi, 1859), and at the University of Berlin (Ph.D. 1860). He was...
SILVA, ANTONIO JOSÉ DA – Portuguese poet; born in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, May 8, 1705; died at the stake in Lisbon Oct. 19, 1739; son of Jaão Mendes da Silva. He was educated at the universities of Lisbon and Coimbra (B.D. 1726). On Aug. 8, 1726, he was...
SILVA, JOÃO MENDES DA – Brazilian poet and attorney; born in Rio de Janeiro 1656; died at Lisbon Jan. 9, 1736. He took his degree in law at the University of Coimbra, and, upon his return to Brazil, married Lourenca Coutinho, who was several times...
SILVA, SAMUEL DA – Physician of Portuguese birth who lived in Amsterdam in the beginning of the seventeenth century. He is known especially through his energetic proceedings against Uriel da Costa. Before the latter's "Examination of the Pharisaic...
SILVEYRA (SILVEIRA), ABRAHAM (DIEGO) GOMES – Poet and preacher; long resident in various French and Dutch towns, finally settling at Amsterdam. He was a member of the Academy of Poets founded by D. Manuel de Belmonte in 1676, and was the author of a collection of...
SILVEYRA, MIGUEL DE – Spanish poet; born in Celorico, Portugal, in the last third of the sixteenth century; died at Naples in 1638. He studied philosophy at Coimbra, and jurisprudence, medicine, and mathematics at Salamanca; and for twenty years...
SINGER, SAMUEL – Philologist; born in Vienna July 12, 1860; educated at the gymnasium and university of his native city (LL.D. 1884; Ph.D. 1885). In 1891 he became privat-docent at the University of Bern, in 1896 assistant professor, and in 1905...
SIMḤAH B. ISAAC B. KALONYMUS HA-KOHEN – One of the Worms Jews who were killed by the pilgrims of the First Crusade on May 25, 1096. When his father, Mar Isaac, and his seven brothers had been slain by the Crusaders, Simḥah declared he would not die without having...
SIMḤAH B. SAMUEL OF SPEYER – German tosafist of the thirteenth century. Neither the year of his birth nor that of his death is known. He took part in the rabbinical synod held at Mayence in Tammuz (July), 1223, being one of the signers of the decrees and...
SIMON, GUSTAV – German surgeon; born at Darmstadt May 30, 1824; died at Heidelberg Aug. 28, 1876. He studied at Heidelberg and Giessen (M.D. 1848). From 1848 to 1861 he was a surgeon of the Hessian army, residing at Darmstadt, where he...
SIMON, JEAN HENRI – Belgian engraver and soldier; born at Brussels Oct. 28, 1752; died there March 12, 1834. He was a son of the engraver Jacob Simon, under whom he learned his trade. When not quite fifteen years of age he was appointed engraver to...
SIMON, JOSEPH – Chief of the bureau of the Progressive communities of Hungary, and reporter on Jewish affairs in the Hungarian Ministry of Public Worship; born at Kapolcs, county of Zala, June 24, 1844; studied law at Budapest. He represented...
SIMON, MORITZ ALEXANDER – German banker and philanthropist; born at Hanover Nov. 27, 1837; died there 1905. Educated at his native town, he became associated there with the banking-house of Ezechiel Simon. Later he spent some years in New York, and, upon...
SIMON, OSKAR – German dermatologist; born at Berlin Jan. 2, 1845; died at Breslau March 2, 1882. Educated in his native city (M.D. 1868), he took a postgraduate course at the University of Vienna. During the Franco-Prussian war he saw active...
SIMONS, DAVID – Dutch jurist; born at The Hague Nov. 3, 1860. He studied law at the University of Leyden (J.U.D. 1883), and then established himself as a lawyer in Amsterdam. In 1897 he was appointed professor of penal law at the University of...