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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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Isidore Singer, Ph.D.

MANAGING EDITOR, New York City.

Contributions:
SIMONSEN, DAVID JACOB – Danish rabbi and author; born in Copenhagen March 17, 1853. He studied at the Von Westenske Institut in his native city, at the same time receiving private instruction in Talmudics and Hebrew literature. In 1874 he was awarded a...
SIMONSEN, JOSEPH LEVIN – Danish jurist; born in Copenhagen Dec. 26, 1814; died there June 21, 1886. He was graduated from the University of Copenhagen (Candidatus Juris) in 1837, and in 1851 was admitted to the bar of the superior court. He soon...
SIMONYI, SIGMUND – Hungarian linguist; born at Veszprim Jan. 1, 1853; studied at Esztergom, Budapest, Leipsic, Berlin, and Paris; he has embraced Christianity. In 1877 he became lecturer, in 1885 assistant professor, and in 1889 professor, at the...
SIMSON, MARTIN EDUARD VON – German jurist and statesman; born Nov. 10, 1810, at Königsberg, East Prussia; died at Berlin May 22, 1899. Educated at the universities of Königsberg (LL.D. 1829), Berlin, and Bonn, and at the Ecole de Droit, Paris, he became...
SINGER, EDMUND – Hungarian violinist; born at Totis, Hungary, Oct. 14, 1831; pupil successively of Ellinger, Ridley Kohne, and Joseph Böhm (violin), and of Preyer (composition); from 1844 to 1846 he studied at the Paris Conservatoire. In the...
SINGER, ISIDOR – Austrian economist; born in Budapest Jan. 16, 1857; removed to Vienna with his parents in 1861. He studied mathematics and astronomy at the University of Vienna; and after taking a course in jurisprudence at Gratz returned to...
SINGER, JOSEF – Austrian cantor; born in Galicia Oct. 15, 1842. His father, an itinerant ḥazzan, destined him for a theatrical career, but the boy evinced an inclination for study, and after taking a four-year course at the Conservatorium at...
SINGER, MAXIMILIAN – Austrian botanist, zoologist, and author; born at Leipnik Feb. 6, 1857 (Ph.D. Vienna, 1883). He made a specialty of botany and zoology and published a number of articles on these subjects in the "Wiener Landwirthschaftliche...
SINGER, PAUL – German Social Democrat and deputy; born in Berlin Jan. 16, 1844. After having attended the real-school of his native city he entered upon a commercial career, and in 1869 established a cloak-factory, with his brother as partner....
SINIGAGLIA – Italian family from Sinigaglia; later settled in Scandiano, where Solomon Jedidiah Sinigaglia ("Bet Talmud," iii. 205) was rabbi and "mohel" in 1639. Later he went to Modena. The principal members of the family and their...
SINZHEIM, JOSEPH DAVID – First rabbi of Strasburg; born in 1745; died at Paris Feb. 11, 1812; son of R. Isaac Sinzheim of Treves and brother-in-law of Herz Cerfbeer. He was the most learned and prominent member of the Assembly of Notables convened by...
SIXTUS SENENSIS – Italian convert to Christianity and anti-Talmudic agitator; born at Sienna (whence his name) in 1520; died in 1569. After his conversion Sixtus entered the Franciscan order, but soon after, being charged with heterodoxy, he was...
SKREINKA, LAZAR – Hungarian scholar; lived in the middle of the nineteenth century. He devoted himself to teaching and became the principal of the Jewish school which had been founded at Arad by Aaron Chorin, whom he assisted in arousing in that...
SKUTECZKY, DAMIANUS – Hungarian genre and portrait painter; born at Kis-Györ Feb. 9, 1850. After he had studied at the Kunstakademie under Geiger, a state scholarship enabled him to go to Italy, where he settled at Venice. He had already acquired a...
SLAVE-TRADE – Trading in slaves was permitted by all ancient and medieval legislations; even Christian Europe allowed it down to the thirteenth century. At an early stage traffic in Jewish slaves was forbidden to Jews, but there appears to...
SLOUSCHZ, DAVID SOLOMON – Russian rabbi and preacher; born at Odessa Sept. 11, 1852. Having received an elementary education in his native town, Slouschz at the age of fourteen went to Minsk, and studied in the yeshibah there for two years. Then he...
SLUCKI, DAVID – Hebrew scholar of Warsaw; died there between 1870 and 1880. Besides his edition of David Franco Mendes' "Gemul 'Atalyah" (Warsaw, 1860) and of Pappenheim's "Agadat Arba' Kosot" (ib. 1863), to both of which works he added notes...
SMOL VON DERENBURCH (SAMUEL OF DERENBURG) – Court banker to the archbishops of Magdeburg in the fourteenth century; died after Oct. 5, 1382. In some of his financial transactions he was assisted by two of his brothers, Marquard and Ephraim. On Nov. 28, 1347, Archbishop...
SMOLENSKIN, PETER (PEREZ) BEN MOSES) – At Moghilef and Odessa. Russian writer; born at Monastyrshchina, government of Moghilef, Feb. 25, 1842; died at Meran, Austria, Feb. 1, 1885. At the age of ten Smolenskin lost his father, and the support of the small family...
SOAVE, MOSES – Italian Hebraist; born in Venice March 28, 1820; died there Nov. 27, 1882. He supported himself as a private tutor in Venetian Jewish families, and collected a library containing many rare and valuable works. Two years before...
TYRNAU – Manufacturing town of western Hungary. It was the scene of two martyrdoms of Jews: the first, in 1494, when fourteen men and two women gave up their innocent lives, as a manuscript dirge of the Cracow community recounts; the...
SOBERNHEIM, JOSEPH FRIEDRICH – German physician and author of medical works; born at Königsberg in 1803; died at Berlin Jan. 30, 1846. He published at Berlin, where he had settled as a physician, a number of medical treatises, of which the following is a list...
SOBORTEN – Town in Bohemia, whose community is probably one of the oldest in the province. The community of Soborten includes parts of the Teplitz, Dux, and Karlitz districts. The synagogue has a tower, with a clock, and two lamps...
SOCIÉTÉ DES ÉTUDES JUIVES – Society for the study of Jewish history and literature, and especially of the history and literature of the Jews of France; its headquarters are in Paris. It was founded in 1880, chiefly through the efforts of Baron James...
TYROL – Crownland of Austria. The earliest documents referring to its Jews date from thebeginning of the fourteenth century. The statement, found in the "Privilegium Ecclesiæ S. Stephani" in Rendena (Hormayr, "Gesch. Tirols," 1808,...