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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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NEW JERSEY:

(Redirected from LONG BRANCH.)

One of the North Atlantic states and one of the thirteen original states of the United States of America. It contains the following Jewish communities:

  • Asbury Park, with a congregation, Sons of Israel.
  • Atlantic City, with a large summer population and a number of permanent residents, has two congregations, Beth Israel (rabbi, Henry M. Fischer) and Amonat Israel. It has also a large Jewish Seaside Home for Invalids, established under the auspices of the Jewish Maternity Association of Philadelphia in 1892, which provides accommodation for poor invalid Jewish women and children during the summer.
  • Bayonne owes most of its Jewish residents to recent Russian immigration, although there are a few settlers of older date. Recorder Lazarus is an influential citizen; and the Jewish community has rapidly increased to 400 families. Congregation Beth Abraham was founded in 1896; and among its institutions are a Hebrew Institute and Hebrew Sheltering and Ladies' Aid Society.
  • Camden has about 50 Jewish families. Congregation Sons of Israel was founded in 1894. Other congregations are Bnai Abraham and Adath Israel; and there is a Hebrew literary society.
  • Elizabeth traces its earliest Jewish residents, the Sontheimer and Hirschfelder families, immigrants from Posen, to 1850 and 1855. The first religious services were held in 1857, and for three years were continued on the holy days and important Sabbaths at the house of M. Sontheimer, until with the growth of the community a hall was hired and H. M. Levy was engaged as minister. In 1882, when the Jews numbered about 25 families (chiefly from Bohemia and other parts of Germany), Congregation B'nai Israel was organized, and in the following year its synagogue on East Jersey street was dedicated. There are two congregations: B'nai Israel, with 32 members, and the Rev. S. Schoenkopf as minister, and Holche Yosher, organized in 1889 by the Russians, whose new synagogue is situated on South Park street; the latter has 43 members. Connected with Congregation B'nai Israel are a Sabbath-school, ladies' charitable society, and a Young Men's Hebrew Association.The majority of the Russians do not affiliate with either congregation, but belong to three benefit societies with a religious coloring; namely, Ahavath Achim (1891), with 125 members; Ohave Zedek (1893), with 160 members; and the Austrian Benevolent and Benefit Association (1891), with 60 members. The Ohave Zedek owns a well-equipped building on Court street, with library and free reading-room. In the same building are class-rooms for the Hebrew free school (90 pupils), supported by the three societies, and a hall wherein services are held on Sabbaths and holy days. Two of the societies have services on the holy days only.The majority of the Russian and Austrian Jews are employed by the Singer Manufacturing Company and in other factories; and most of them are fairly prosperous. The Bohemian Jews and those from other parts of Germany, as well as those Russians who are not working men, are successful business men. There are three Jewish physicians and four Jewish lawyers. With the influx of Russian Jews, the community rapidly grew in number, until now (1904) the Jewish population reaches 550 families in a total of 52,130 inhabitants.
  • Englewood has a congregation, Ahbat Torah, comprising 30 members.
  • Hoboken has two congregations, each with its synagogue: Adath Emuno, founded in 1871 (rabbi, Nathan Wolf), and numbering about 55 members; and Moses Montefiore, established in 1892, and numbering about 60 members. It has also a Hebrew Institute, a free school, a Young Men's Hebrew Association, Ladies' Aid Society and Social Club, and a Benevolent Association.
  • Jersey City has a growing Jewish population, the size of which is variously estimated, but is certainly not less than 1,500 families. Its oldest congregations are Beth-El, on York street, founded in 1870, and Bnai Israel, established in 1882. Since then two other congregations have been organized. In 1900 a Young Men's Hebrew Association was founded, and there are also a Free Loan Association, and a Hebrew free school on Jersey City Heights.
  • Long Branch has a very extensive Jewish population in the summer and a growing permanent population as well. It has a congregation, Beth Miriam, which is largely attended and which has been addressed by many distinguished preachers during the summer season. Among its local institutions are The Helping Hand Society, Free Burial-Ground Association, Chevra Kadisha, and a Hebrew school.
  • Millville and Morristown each have a congregation; the latter has a Cemetery Association.
  • New Brunswick has had a marked growth in its Jewish population, its Russian residents largely out-numbering the original settlers. There are several congregations, Congregation Anshe Emeth being the most important.
  • Orange has about 30 Jewish families, with a small synagogue. Its congregation dates back to 1874. It has its literary circle and ladies' aid society.
  • Passaic has about 400 Jewish families. Congregation B'nai Jacob was founded about 1893. Attempts have been made to organize a Hebrew school, but without any permanent success. There is a Ladies' Hebrew Benevolent Society. More recently the Kal Israel Achim has been organized.
  • Perth Amboy has a congregation, a Young Men's Hebrew Association, and two communal societies; Plainfield has two congregations and two charitable associations; and Somerville and Union Hill have each a congregation.
  • Woodbine, with its 2,000 residents, superior educational facilities, and over $3,000 paid out weekly in wages alone, has amply fulfilled the promise of its founders. Every occupation is represented in the settlement, whose inception (in 1894) and maintenance are due to the Baron de Hirsch Fund (see Hirsch Fund, Baron de). The grounds of the Agricultural School contain main school building, dormitory, dining-room and kitchen annex, dairy, teachers' cottage, and barn. There are 15 instructors and 110 students, with total expense of $36,000 annually. Sixty graduates have passed from the school since 1895, and all have profitable employment. The synagogue was built by the colonists, whose farms show every sign of prosperity. In South Jersey are three more colonies, Alliance, Carmel, and Rosenhayn (see Jew. Encyc. i. 260 et seq., s.v. Agricultural Colonies in the United States).New Jersey contributed 278 Jewish soldiers to the Civil war and about 30 soldiers to the Spanish-American war. At present (1904) its Jewish inhabitants are estimated at 25,000 in a total population of 1,883,669.

See also Newark; Paterson.

A. A. S. I.
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