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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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ZOHAR – Source. A pseudepigraphic work which pretends to be a revelation from God communicated through R. Simeon ben Yoḥai to the latter's select disciples. Under the form of a commentary on the Pentateuch, written partly in Aramaic and...
ZOLA, EMILE – His Novels. French novelist; born in Paris April 2, 1840; died there Sept. 29, 1902. It was only in his last years, when anti-Semitism had reached an acute stage in France, that he took up the cause of the Jewish community...
ZOMBER, BERNHARD (BÄR) – Polish scholar; born at Lask in 1821; died at Berlin in 1884. Having acquired a fair knowledge of rabbinical literature in his native country, he went to Germany, where he studied successively under Joseph Shapiro and Jacob...
ZOR – See Tyre.
ẒOREF, SAMUEL HA-LEVI – Rabbi at Posen; died between 1710 and 1716. He was the author of "Maẓref la-Kesef" (Frankfort-on-the-Oder, 1681), containing extracts from and an index to the "Shene Luḥot ha-Berit" ("SHeLaH") of Isaiah Horowitz, with two...
ZOROASTRIANISM – The religion of ancient Persia as founded by Zoroaster; one of the world's great faiths that bears the closest resemblance to Judaism and Christianity. According to the tradition in the Parsee books, Zoroaster was born in 660...
ZOX, EPHRAIM LAMEN – Communal worker of Melbourne, Australia; born in London 1837; died Oct. 23, 1899. He was thirteen years old when he arrived in Melbourne, and he engaged successively in gold-digging, auctioneering, and the clothing business, and...
ZSIDΌ HIRADΌ – See Periodicals.
ZUCKER, ALFRED – Chemist and manufacturer of Dresden, Germany; born Aug. 17, 1871, in Uffenheim, Bavaria. He studied pharmacy and chemistry at the universities of Würzburg and Erlangen; and while he was still a student the Württemberg...
ZUCKER, MARCUS – German librarian and author; born May 1, 1841. He was for some time chief librarian at the University of Erlangen, and has made a specialty of the history of art. Among his writings are: "Dürers Stellung zur Reformation" (1886);...
ZUCKERKANDL, EMIL – Austrian anatomist; born at Raab, Hungary, in 1849; educated at the University of Vienna (M.D. 1874). In 1875 he became privat-docent of anatomy at the Universityof Utrecht, and he was appointed assistant professor at the...
ZUCKERMANDEL, MOSES SAMUEL – German rabbi and Talmudist; born at Ungarisch-Brod, Moravia, April 24, 1836. He became a rabbi in Pleschen, Prussia, and was appointed lecturer on the Mora-Leipziger foundation at Breslau April 1, 1898. He has published: "Die...
ZUCKERMANN, BENEDICT – German scientist; born at Breslau Oct. 9, 1818; died there Dec. 17, 1891. He received a thorough Hebrew and secular education at the institutions of his native city, and devoted himself at the university to the study of...
ZUENZ, ARYEH LOEB ḤARIF B. MOSES – Polish rabbi; born at Pinczow about 1773; died at Warsaw 1833. He was a thorough Talmudic scholar, and was also well versed in the Cabala. Holding first the rabbinate of Plock and then that of Prague, he later settled at Warsaw,...
ZUG – See Switzerland.
ZUGOT – Name given to the leading teachers of the Law in the time preceding the Tannaim. The period of the Zugot begins with Jose b. Joezer and ends with Hillel. The name "Zugot" (comp. Latin "duumviri") was given to these teachers...
ZUKERTORT, JOHANNES HERMANN – Chess-player and physician; born at Lublin, Russian Poland, Sept. 7, 1842; died in London June 20, 1888; son of a Jewish convert to Christianity who was a clergyman at Lublin. He was educated at the gymnasium of Breslau and at...