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JEHOSHAPHAT, VALLEY OF – A valley mentioned by the prophet Joel (Joel iv. [A. V. iii.] 2, 12), where, after the return of Judah and Jerusalem from the Captivity, Yhwh would gather all the heathen and would sit in judgment on their misdeeds to Israel. On...
JEHOVAH – Valley of Jehoshaphat.(From a photograph by Bonfils.)A mispronunciation (introduced by Christian theologians, but almost entirely disregarded by the Jews) of the Hebrew "Yhwh," the (ineffable) name of God (the Tetragrammaton or...
JEHOVAH-JIREH – Name given by Abraham to the place where he sacrificed a ram instead of his son Isaac (Gen. xxii. 14). The name may be an allusion either to Gen. xxii. 8 or, as is the opinion of the commentators, to the future importance of the...
JEHU – 1. Son of Jehoshaphat and grandson of Nimshi, founder of the fifth Israelitish dynasty (842-743 B.C.); died 815 B.C., in the twenty-eighth year of his reign. A commander of troops (II Kings ix. 5-14, 25), with the cooperation of...
JEHUDA – See Judah.
JEHUDI B. SHESHET – Hebrew philologist of the tenth century; pupil of Dunash b. Labraṭ. He is known exclusively through the polemic in which he defended his teacher against the attacks of the pupils of Menahem b. Saruḳ. The only manuscript which...
JEITELES (JEITTELES) – Austrian family of some importance, which can be traced back to the first half of the eighteenth century.Aaron (Andreas) Ludwig Joseph Jeitteles: Physician, poet, and writer; born at Prague Nov. 24, 1799; died at Graz June 17,...
JEITELES, ALOIS – Austrian physician and poet; born June 20, 1794 (or 1795), at Brünn, Moravia; died there April 16, 1858. He studied philosophy at Brünn and Prague, and medicine at Vienna (M.D. 1819). Stimulated by his intercourse with men like...
JEKEL, RABBI – See Jacob of Vienna.
JEKUTHIEL IBN ḤASAN – Statesman and scientist of the eleventh century; lived in Saragossa. According to Geiger, he is identical with the astronomer Ḥasan ben Ḥasan, who lived as dayyan in Cordova, where he wrote a work on astronomy, and later settled...
JEKUTHIEL BEN JUDAH HA-KOHEN – Grammarian of Prague; lived in the second half of the thirteenth century. Baer claimed to have seen a manuscript which gave 1171 as the date of Jekuthiel's death ("Orient. Lit." xii. 6), but according to Steinschneider ("Cat....
JEKUTHIEL BEN LÖB GORDON – Russian physician and cabalist; born at the beginning of the eighteenth century. Even as a young man he enjoyed a reputation as an able Talmudist. He went to Padua to study medicine, and there made the acquaintance of the young...
JEKUTHIEL BEN SOLOMON – French physician; lived at Narbonne in the second half of the fourteenth century. In 1387 he translated into Hebrew, under the title "Shoshan ha-Refu'ah," the "Lilium Medicinæ" of Bernard of Gordon. The translation is extant in...
JEKUTHIEL OF WILNA – See Jekuthiel, b. Löb Gordon.
JELIN, ARYEH LÖB – Rabbi of Byelsk, government of Grodno, Russia; born 1820; died April 2, 1886. He was one of the most prominent Russian rabbis, to whom halakic matters were frequently referred for decision. He was the author of "Ḳol Aryeh" and...
JELLINEK – Austrian family whose name has been rendered illustrious by the great preacher Adolf Jellinek.Adolf Jellinek: Austrian rabbi and scholar; born June 26, 1821, at Drslawitz, Moravia; died Dec. 29, 1893, at Vienna. In 1845 he...
JENER, ABRAHAM NAPHTALI HIRZ BEN MORDECAI – Polish rabbi; born at Yanov 1806; died at Cracow July 14, 1876. He was a pupil of his father and of his brother Johanan, and soon distinguished himself as a Talmudist. In 1826 he went to Cracow, where he engaged in business, but...
JEPHTHAH – Biblical Data: Judge of Israel during six years (Judges xii. 7); conqueror of the Ammonites. According to Judges xi. 1, he was a Gileadite, son of Gilead and a harlot. Driven from his father's house by his father's legitimate...
JERAHMEEL – Biblical Data: David, while he was a refugee at the court of Achish, King of Gath, is said to have made a raid against the "south of the Jerahmeelites" (I Sam. xxvii. 10) and after his raid to have sent a part of the spoil to...
JEREMIAH – Biblical Data: Son of Hilkiah; prophet in the days of Josiah and his sons.§ I. Life: In the case of no other Israelitish prophet is information so full as in that of Jeremiah. The historical portions of the Book of Jeremiah give...
JEREMIAH, BOOK OF – Three Sections. —Biblical Data: Contents: At the beginning of the book is a superscription (i. 1-3) which, after giving the parentage of Jeremiah, fixes the period of his prophetical activity as extending from the thirteenth...
JEREMIAH, EPISTLE OF – A Greek apocryphon, being a fictitious letter which Jeremiah is supposed to have written to the Jews who were about to be led as captives to Babylonia, the purpose of the letter being to warn them against idolatry. It seems to...
JEREMIAH, THE LAMENTATIONS OF – See Lamentations.
JEREMIAH – Polish rabbi in the second half of the eighteenth century; head of the yeshibah at Mattersdorf, Hungary, in which he devoted himself especially to the legal treatises of the Babylonian Talmud. Aaron Chorin was one of his pupils....
JEREMIAH – Palestinian scholar of the fourth century; always quoted by the single name "Jeremiah," though sometimes that name is used for Jeremiah b. Abba. A Babylonian by birth, he passed his youth in his native land without giving much...