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ZERAHIAH BEN ISAAC HA-LEVI GERONDI – Talmudic author and liturgical poet of the twelfth century; disciple of Moses ben Joseph of Narbonne. Azulai and many others, influenced by the statement of Zacuto ("Sefer ha-Yuḥasin," ed. Filopowski, p. 218) that Zerahiah...
ZERAHIAH HA-YEWANI (RaZaH) – Byzantine ethical writer of the thirteenth or fourteenth century. Of his life no details are known, except that he was the author of an ethical work entitled "Sefer ha-Yashar," which was confused with Jacob Tam's halakic work of...
ZERA'IM – The first order of the Mishnah, containing eleven treatises: Berakot, Pe'ah, Demai, Kil'ayim, Shebi'it, Terumot, Ma'aserot, Ma'aser Sheni, Ḥallah, 'Orlah, and Bikkurim. With the exception of the first, all these treatises, as is...
ZERED, BROOK – One of the stations of the Israelites in the wilderness, indicated as the end of the thirty-eighth year of wandering (Num. xxi. 12; Deut. ii. 13-14). The Targum of pseudo-Jonathan renders the name by "valley where willows grow,"...
ZERFFI, GUSTAV – Hungarian journalist and revolutionist; born in Hungary about 1820. He was the author of "Wiener Lichtbilder und Schattenspiele," with twelve caricatures (Vienna, 1848); and as editor of "Der Ungar" in 1848, he became...
ZERIKA – Palestinian amora of the fourth century; a pupil of Eleazar, whose halakic maxims he transmitted (Soṭah 4b; Zeb. 93b; Men. 7b, 86b), and of Ammi (see Ḥul. 46a). He was a colleague of Abba, with whom he decided the controversy of...
ẒEROR, RAPHAEL JEDIDIAH SOLOMON BEN JESHUA – Algerian rabbi; born at Algiers Sept. 8, 1681; died there Dec. 21, 1737. He was a descendant of a family of distinguished Talmudists, and his grandfather, Solomon Ẓeror, was, like himself, chief rabbi of Algiers. Together with...
ZERUBBABEL – Son of Shealtiel (Ezra iii. 2, 8; Hag. i. 1; "Pedaiah" in I Chron. iii. 19 is probably a scribal error) and grandson of Jehoiachin. The name is either the Hebrew (= "begotten of [in] Babylon"), although compounds with the...
ZEVAST – See Will.
ZHIDOVSTVUYUSHCHAYA YERES – See Judaizing Heresy.
ZHITOMIR (JITOMIR) – Russian city; capital of the government of Volhynia. It is one of the oldest towns in European Russia, having become part of Lithuania in 1320 and being one of its prominent towns in the middle of the fifteenth century. As late...
ZIDON (SIDON) – 1. Eldest son of Canaan (Gen. x. 15; I Chron. i. 13).2. According to Strabo (xvi. 2), the oldest city of Canaan; situated twenty miles south of Beirut. Its territory extended from the slopes of the Lebanon to the coast, and was...
ZIEGLER, IGNAZ – Austrian rabbi; born at Also-Kubin, Hungary, Sept. 29, 1861; educated at the Rabbinical Seminary and at the University of Budapest (Ph.D. 1888). Immediately after his graduation he was called to the rabbinate of Carlsbad, a...
ZIKLAG – Simeonitic town which, after the union of the tribes of Simeon and Judah, became Judean; first mentioned in the account of the territory and borders of the individual tribes (Josh. xv. 31, xix. 5). In the early part of the regal...
ZILZER, ANTAL (ANTON) – Hungarian painter; born at Budapest in 1861. He was a pupil of Rauscher, Gregusz, and Szekely at the national model school of design, and later studied at the Munich Academy under Raupp, Hackl, Seitz, and Herterich, completing...
ZIMMER, NATHAN LÖB DAVID – English pietist and scholar; born at Fürth, Bavaria, in March, 1831; died at London Jan. 10, 1895. He was noted in London for his intense piety, which he probably inherited from his father, who was a fervent ẓaddiḳ. Zimmer went...
ZIMMERN, HELEN – German authoress; born at Hamburg March 25, 1846. She went to England at an early age, and resided there till 1887, when she removed to Florence. She has written lives of Schopenhauer (1873), Maria Edgeworth (1883), and Sir...