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JOSEPHS, WALTER – English educationist and communal worker; born in London Nov. 22, 1804; died Jan. 24, 1893. He was closely connected with the management of the following institutions: Jews' Free School; Jews' Infant School (honorary secretary...
JOSEPHSTADT – See Prague.
JOSEPHUS, FLAVIUS – General and historian; born in 37 or 38; died after 100. He boasts of belonging to the Hasmonean race on his mother's side ("Vita," § 1). His great-grandfather was Simon "the Stammerer." As a boy Josephus was distinguished for...
JOSHUA (JEHOSHUA) – Name of several Biblical personages.In Hebrew (Deut. iii. 21; Judges ii. 7) and commonly (Judges ii. 7a; Ex. xvii. 9; Josh. i. 1) correspond to = "helped by Yhwh," the shorter form being = "help" or "one who helped" (Num. xiii....
JOSHUA, BOOK OF – Biblical Data: The first book of the second greater division in the Hebrew canon, the "Nebi'im," and therefore also the first of the first part of this division, the "Nebi'im Rishonim." It bears in Hebrew the superscription ; in...
JOSHUA, THE SAMARITAN BOOK OF – Samaritan chronicle, written in Arabic; so termed because the greater part of it is devoted to the history of Joshua. It was published from an Arabic manuscript written in Samaritan characters, with a Latin translation and a...
JOSHUA (BRUNO) – Physician and scholar of Treves; lived in the eleventh and twelfth centuries. He treated Bruno, Archbishop of Treves (1102-4), who granted him the privilege to wear knightly garments. The archbishop had frequent religious...
JOSHUA B. ABIN – Palestinian amora of the fourth century whose name is associated chiefly with haggadot. He transmitted a haggadah of Levi and a halakah of 'Anani b. Sason. There are also extant some of his own haggadic sayings, and some...
JOSHUA (Jesus) BEN DAMNAI – High priest about 62-63 C.E. He was appointed by King Agrippa II., after Anan, son of Anan, had been deposed (Josephus, "Ant." xx. 9, § 1). Joshua also was soon deposed by the king, and in his place Jesus (Joshua) b. Gamaliel...
JOSHUA (Jesus) BEN GAMLA – A high priest who officiated about 64 C.E. He married therich widow Martha of the high-priestly family Boethos (Yeb. vi. 4), and she by bribing Agrippa II. (not Jannai, as Talmudic sources say) secured for him the office of high...
JOSHUA B. HANANIAH – A leading tanna of the first half-century following the destruction of the Temple. He was of Levitical descent (Ma'as. Sh. v. 9), and served in the sanctuary as a member of the class of singers ('Ar. 11b). His mother intended...
JOSHUA HÖSCHEL BEN JOSEPH – Polish rabbi; born in Wilna about 1578; died at Cracow Aug. 16, 1648. In his boyhood he journeyed to Przemysl, Galicia, to study the Talmud under Rabbi Samuel ben Phoebus of Cracow. He returned to his native country, and...
JOSHUA HÖSCHEL BEN MEÏR – Rabbinical author; lived in the eighteenth century; died at Jerusalem; a contemporary of Elijah Wilna. Hewrote "Maẓmiaḥ Yeshu'ah" (Nowydwor, 1782), in two parts: the first consists of a commentary on the "Mordekai" of R....
JOSHUA HÖSCHEL BEN SAUL – Polish rabbi; died in Wilna at an advanced age Sept. 9, 1749. He was named after his grandfather, R. Höschel of Lublin, Brest-Litovsk, and Cracow (d. 1663), and is referred to in a document dated 1745 as being very old. He...
JOSHUA JOSEPH BEN DAVID HALEVI – Rabbi of Venice and Hebrew poet; lived in the seventeenth century. He composed elegies ("ḳinot") on the deaths of Samuel Aboab and Moses Zacuto (Venice, 1694), and one, entitled "Kos Tanḥumin," on the death of Moses Levi Majo,...
JOSHUA B. ḲARḤA – Tanna of the second century; contemporary of the patriarch Simeon b. Gamaliel II. Some regard him as the son of Akiba who was named "Kereaḥ" = "bald" (Rashi on Bek. 58a; Rashbam on Pes. 112a). This is incorrect (comp. Tosef.,...
JOSHUA B. LEVI – Palestinian amora of the first half of the third century. He was the head of the school of Lydda in southern Palestine, and an elder contemporary of Johanan bar Nappaḥa and Simeon b. Laḳish, who presided over the school in...
JOSHUA (FALK) LISSER BEN JUDAH LÖB – German Talmudist; born in Lissa, Posen. He was schoolmaster at Hamburg toward the end of the seventeenth century, and was the author of "'Emeḳ Yehoshua'" (Frankfort-on-the-Oder, 1699), annotations to the Pentateuch and to...
JOSHUA BEN MORDECAI FALK HAKOHEN – American Talmudist; born at Brest-Kuyavsk, government of Warsaw, in 1799; died at Keokuk, Iowa, in 1864. While still a young man he settled in Kurnik, Prussia, and consequently he sometimes called himself "Joshua of Kurnik." In...
JOSHUA (HA-KOHEN) BEN NEHEMIAH – Palestinian amora of the fourth century. He seems to have devoted himself almost entirely to the Haggadah, for no halakic opinion of his is known. In the Talmud he is mentioned in one passage only (Sheḳ. ii. 4), but his name...
JOSHUA B. PERAḤYAH – President ("nasi") of the Sanhedrin in the latter half of the second century B.C. He and his colleague Nittai of Arbela were the second of the five pairs of scholars who received and transmitted the tradition (Ab. i. 6; Ḥag....
JOSHUA PHABI – See Jesus ben Phabi.
JOSHUA OF SHIKNIN – Amora of the third century; known especially as a transmitter of Levi's Haggadah. He also quotes a haggadic sentence by Aḥa (Lev. R. xxxi. 5). Of his own work only a haggadic sentence, quoted by Yusta b. Shunam, is known: "The...
JOSIAH – King of Judah from 639 to 608 B.C.; son and successor of Amon and grandson of Manasseh. His mother was Jedidah, the daughter of Adaiah of Boscath (II Kings xxii. 1 et seq.). His father, Amon, fell a victim to a conspiracy and...
JOSIAH – Tanna of the second century; the most distinguished pupil of R. Ishmael. He is not mentioned in the Mishnah, perhaps because he lived in the south (Sanh. 88b), and his teachings were consequently unknown to the compiler of the...