JewishEncyclopedia.com

The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
- Phrase search: "names of god"
- Exclude terms: "names of god" -zerah
- Volume/Page: v9 p419
- Diacritics optional: Ḥanukkah or hanukkah
- Search by Author: altruism author:Hirsch
search tips & recommendations
ARTAXERXES III. – A son of Artaxerxes II. He originally bore a name which in Babylonian was written "Umasu" (and therefore in the Ptolemaic canon, as given by Elias of Nisibis, the form is found). He was called Ochus by the Greeks. After he had...
ARTEMION – Leader of the Jewish insurrection in Cyprus against Trajan, 117. There are but scanty details of this revolt. According to Roman sources, the Jews destroyed the capital of the island of Salamis and slew 240,000 Greeks. The...
ARTHUR LEGEND – The cycle of stories clustering around the semi-mythical hero King Arthur of England, and which finds its place in Jewish literature in a Hebrew translation entitled ("The Book of the Destruction of the Round Table"), composed...
ARTICLES OF FAITH – No Fixed Dogmas. In the same sense as Christianity or Islam, Judaism can not be credited with the possession of Articles of Faith. Many attempts have indeed been made at systematizing and reducing to a fixed phraseology and...
ARTISANS – Terms. —In Bible and Talmud: The general term for "artisan" in the Bible is "Ḧarash" or "Ḧoresh," which, derived from a verb meaning "to cut," is applicable to any worker in a hard substance, such as metal, stone, or wood...
ARTISANS – Medieval: So far as they were allowed by the restrictions of the trade gilds, many Jews of medieval times obtained their livelihood by working with their hands. Benjamin of Tudela (1171) refers to many manufacturers of silk in...
ARTOM, BENJAMIN – Chief rabbi of the Spanish and Portuguese congregation of London; born at Asti, Italy, in 1835; died at Brighton, near London, Jan. 6, 1879. He was left fatherless when a child, and his maternal uncle supervised his early...
ARTOM, ISAAC – Italian patriot, diplomat, financier, and author; born at Asti, Piedmont, Dec. 31, 1829; died at Rome Jan. 24, 1900, and was buried at Asti. At the age of sixteen he was ready for the university; but the higher schools of...
ARTON, LÉOPOLD ÉMILE – French adventurer; born in Strasburg in 1849; settled in Paris in 1871. He was implicated in distributing among statesmen and politicians the bribes of the Panama Canal Company, which sought to secure the authorization of the...
ARUBOTH – A district, probably in the south of Judah, where the son of Hesed, a commissariat officer of Solomon, had his headquarters (I Kings iv. 10).J. Jr. G. B. L.
'ARUK – Hebrew expression for "dictionary," corresponding with the Arabic "ta'alif," and derived from "'arak [millin]" (Job xxxii. 14), "arranged words" (A. V. "directed words").A Biblical dictionary, under the title "MaḦberet ha-'Aruk"...
ARUMAH – A place in Ephraim not far from Shechem, where Abimelech, the judge, took refuge (Judges ix. 41). It has been identified with El 'Ormeh on the hills southeast of Shechem.J. Jr. G. B. L.
ARUVAS (AROVAS), ISAAC – Rabbi and author; son of R. Hananiah Aruvas; lived in the seventeenth century. He filled the office of rabbi in several African communities, and later settled in Venice. He is the author of "Emet we-Emunah" (Truth and Faith), a...
ARUVAS, MOSES BEN JOSEPH – A physician and translator; lived in Cyprus and Damascus in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. He translated Aristotle's "Theology," a pseudepigraphic work, from the Arabic into Italian. This translation, made at the request...
ARVAD – A town mentioned by Ezekiel (xxvii. 8, 11) as having contributed materially to Tyre's commercial greatness. Men of Arvad rowed the ships and manned the walls of Tyre. In the genealogical list of Gen. x. 18, and in the...
ARYEH – A name commonly found among the Jews. The first person known to have borne it lived in the middle of the second century (Pes. 113b). His real name, however, was Judah; and "Aryeh," or to give the more exact and fuller form, "Gur...
ARYEH JUDAH B. ẒEBI HIRSCH – See Judah B. Ẓebi Hirsch.
ARYEH LOEB – Dayyan of Lublin, Poland, in the seventeenth century. He was the author of "Liḳḳuṭe ha-Or" (Collection of Light), in two volumes, the second of which, "Ha-Maor ha-Gadol" (The Greater Light), is as yet unpublished. The first,...
ARYEH LOEB B. ABRAHAM PORTSCHINER – See Cordovero, Aryeh Löb.
ARYEH LOEB BEN ASHER – A rabbi and one of the most eminent Talmudists of his age; born in Lithuania at the end of the seventeenth century; died at Metz June 23, 1785. He was rabbi in Pinsk, and, later, president of the yeshibah in Minsk. In 1765 he...
ARYEH LOEB B. BARUCH BENDET – See Loeb b. Baruch Bendet.
ARYEH LOEB B. ḤAYYIM BRESLAU – See Breslau Loeb ben Ḥayyim.
ARYEH LOEB BEN JACOB JOSHUA – German Talmudist and author; born 1715; died at Hanover March 6, 1789. He was a son of the author of "Pene Yehoshua'," who died as rabbi of Frankfort-on-the-Main 1755. In his youth he was his father's assistant, and taught as...
ARYEH LOEB BEN JOSHUA HESHEL – See Loeb b. Joshua Heshel.
ARYEH LOEB HA-KOHEN OF STYRYJI – See Loeb ha-Kohen of Styryji.