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FISCHER, BERNARD – Austrian rabbi and author; born at Budikau, a village in the district of Chrudim, Bohemia, Jan. 12, 1821; graduated from the University of Prague (Ph.D., 1850); rabbi of various small congregations in the district of Eger...
FISCHER, KARL – Christian censor of Hebrew books in Prague; born in Lichtenstadt, Bohemia, July 5, 1755; died at Prague Jan. 22, 1844. He became assistant (1781), and finally successor, to the imperial censor Leopold Tirsch. He possessed an...
FISCHER, MARCUS (MAIER) – Austrian Hebraist; born in Vienna 1783; died at Prague May 22, 1853; son of Moses Fischer, rabbi of the Jewish community of Vienna. He wrote in Hebrew an able and comprehensive work on the his tory of the Jews under Mahdi and...
FISCHER, MORITZ VON – Hungarian porcelain-manufacturer; born at Totis, Hungary, 1800; died there Feb. 25, 1900. He rendered distinguished service to Hungarian industry and art through his porcelain manufactory in Herend near Veszprim. He was...
FISCHER, MOSES – Austrian rabbi; born at Prague about 1756; died at Eisenstadt, Hungary, about 1833; son of the wealthy Talmudic scholar Meïr Fischer, and father of Marcus Fischer. In addition to Talmud, Fischer studied philosophy and...
FISCHER, NICOLAUS WOLFGANG – Physician and chemist; born Jan. 15, 1782, in Great Meseritz, Moravia; died Aug. 19, 1850, in Breslau. He studied at the universities of Vienna, Prague, Breslau, and Berlin. Having obtained his doctor's degree at Erfurt Oct. 10,...
FISCHHOF, ADOLF – Austrian writer and politician; born at Alt-Ofen, Hungary, Dec. 8, 1816; died at Emmersdorf, near Klagenfurth, Carinthia, March 23, 1893. After studying medicine (1836-1844) he was appointed physician at the Vienna hospital....
FISCHHOF, JOSEPH – Austrian pianist and composer; uncle of Robert Fischhof; born April 4, 1804, at Butschowitz in Moravia; died at Vienna June 28, 1857. In 1813 he began to study at the lyceum of Brünn, at the same time receiving instruction in...
FISCHHOF, ROBERT – Austrian musician; born in Vienna Oct. 31, 1857. When only seven years old Robert Fischhof played in public. He studied at the Vienna Conservatorium under Anton Door (pianoforte), and under Fuchs, Krenn, and Bruckner...
FISCHMANN, NAHMAN ISAAC – Austrian author; died in 1873. His home was in Lemberg. He wrote: "Eshkol 'Anabim," a collection of Hebrew poems (Lemberg, 1827); "Ha-Ro'eh u-Mebaḳḳer Sifre Zemannenu," a criticism of the philological and archeological works of...
FISCUS JUDAICUS – The yearly Temple tax of half a shekel prescribed by the Law (Ex. xxx. 13; compare Sheḳ. i. 1), and which the Jews of the Diaspora contributed during the time of the Second Temple. It was diverted by Vespasian, after the...
FISH AND FISHING – The Bible does not mention any particular fish by name. "Dag" and "nun" are the generic terms covering all species, thus designated as exceedingly prolific and always to be found in shoals or in large numbers (comp. blessing of...
FISHBERG, MAURICE – American physician; anthropologist; born Aug. 16, 1872, at Kamenetz, Podolsk, Russia; educated at the public school of his native town. He emigrated to the United States in 1889, and, arriving in New York, studied medicine at...
FIUME – Hungarian free city and Adriatic seaport, with a Jewish population in 1901 of about 2,000. That there were Jews at Fiume in the eighteenth century is indicated by the existence there of a Jewish tombstone dated 1746 and a scroll...
FIVE SCROLLS – See Megillot, the Five.
FIXTURES – Things fastened to the ground, directly or indirectly. Doubt may arise with regard to them, whether or not they become in law part of the land. This may be a question between the landlord and the tenant, or between the seller...
FLACCUS – Governor of Egypt; enemy and persecutor of the Jews of Alexandria, for which reason Philo, in 42 C. E., directed a special work ("In Flaccum") against him. Philo only once (§ 1) gives the full name, φλάκκος 'A ουιλλιος. This is...
FLACCUS, L. POMPONIUS – Roman governor of Syria (32-35?); no particulars concerning his life are known. When Agrippa (afterward King Agrippa I.), while poor and suffering, was insulted by his brother-in-law Herod Antipas, he applied to Flaccus, with...
FLACCUS, L. VALERIUS – Proconsul of Asia Minor in 62-61 B.C. He is notorious in the history of the Jews for having seized for the public treasury the Temple money intended for Jerusalem; thus, at Apamea, nearly 100 pounds of gold through the Roman...
FLAG – A standard or banner having a certain color, emblem, and sometimes an inscription, and carried before a marching army to distinguish its nationality. Flags are of ancient origin. According to the Bible, each of the twelve tribes...
FLAGELLANTS – See Ferrer, Vicente.
FLAGELLATION – See Stripes.
FLAMBEAU, LE – See Periodicals.
FLATAU, THEODOR SIMON – German physician; born at Lyck, province of East Prussia, June 4, 1860. He received his education at the gymnasium of his native town, at the Grauen Kloster in Berlin, and at the universities of Berlin and Heidelberg, taking his...
FLATTERY – Insincere, obsequious, or venal praise. Flattery is condemned by Jewish moralists as an offense against sincerity (Ps. xii. 3). It spreads a net for man, and may work his ruin (Prov. xxvi. 28, xxix. 5; compare ii. 16, vi. 24,...