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POLACCO, VITTORIO – Italian jurist of Polish descent; born at Padua May 10, 1859. Since 1884 he has been professor of civil law at the University of Padua. His chief works are: "Della Divisione Operata da Ascendenti Fra Discendenti," Padua, 1884;...
POLAK, GABRIEL JACOB – Talmudist and bibliographer; born June 3, 1803; died May 14, 1869, at Amsterdam, where he was principal of a school. He was the author of the following works, all published in Amsterdam: "Bikkure ha-Shanah" (1844), a Dutch and...
POLAK, HENRI – Dutch labor-leader and politician; born at Amsterdam Feb. 22, 1868. Till his thirteenth year he attended the school conducted by Halberstadt, a well-known teacher of Jewish middle-class boys, and afterward learned from his uncle...
POLAK, HERMAN JOSEF – Dutch philologist; born Sept. 1, 1844, at Leyden; educated at the university of that city (Ph.D. 1869). From 1866 to 1869 he taught classics at the gymnasium of Leyden; from 1873 he taught history at that of Rotterdam; and from...
POLAK, JAKOB EDUARD – Austrian physician; born 1818 at Gross-Morzin, Bohemia; died Oct. 7, 1891; studied at Prague and Vienna (M.D.). About 1851, when an envoy of the Persian government went to Vienna to engage teachers for the military school at...
POLAND – See Russia.
POLEMICS AND POLEMICAL LITERATURE – First Appearance in Egypt. Although pagan nations as a rule were not prone to intolerance in matters of religion, they were so with regard to Judaism. They were highly incensed against the people which treated so contemptuously...
POLEMON II. – King, first of the Pontus and the Bosporus, then of the Pontus and Cilicia, and lastly of Cilicia alone; died in 74 C.E. Together with other neighboring kings and princes, Polemon once visited King Agrippa I. in Tiberias...
POLICE LAWS – Laws regulating intercourse among citizens, and embracing the care and preservation of the public peace, health, safety, morality, and welfare. The prevention of crime is the main object of the police laws, although there are...
POLIDO, DAVID – See David Raphael ben Abraham Polido.
POLISHER JÜDEL – See Periodicals.
POLITZER, ADAM – Austrian aurist; born at Alberti-Irsa, Hungary, Oct. 1, 1835; studied medicine at the University of Vienna, receiving his diploma in 1859 and becoming assistant at the university hospital. Politzer established himself as a...
POLKAR, ISAAC B. JOSEPH – See Pulgar, Isaac b. Joseph.
POLL-TAX – The custom of taxing a population at a certain amount per head dates back to very ancient times. The first time such a tax is mentioned is in Ex. xxx. 12-16, where it is stated that every male "from twenty years old and above"...
POLLAK, A. M., RITTER VON RUDIN – Austrian manufacturer and philanthropist; born at Wescheraditz, Bohemia, in 1817; died at Vienna June 1, 1884. Pollak was trained for a technical career. In 1836 he established at Prague a factory for the manufacture of matches,...
POLLAK, JACOB – Founder of the Polish method of halakic and Talmudic study known as the Pilpul; born about 1460; died at Lublin 1541. He was a pupil of Jacob Margolioth of Nuremberg, with whose son Isaac he officiated in the rabbinate of Prague...
POLLAK, JOACHIM (ḤAYYIM JOSEPH) – Austrian rabbi; born in Hungary in 1798; died at Trebitsch, Moravia, Dec. 16, 1879, where he officiated as rabbi from 1828 until his death. He wrote a commentary, entitled "Meḳor Ḥayyim" (Presburg, 1849; 3d ed. Warsaw, 1885), on...
POLLAK, KAIM – Hungarian writer; born at Liptó-Szent-Miklós Oct. 6, 1835; educated in the Talmud at his native city, at Presburg, and at Sátoralja Ujhely. In 1858 he went to Prague, where he attended Rapoport's lectures, and then taught...
POLLAK, LEOPOLD – Genre- and portrait-painter; born at Lodenitz, Bohemia, Nov. 8, 1806; died at Rome Oct. 16, 1880. He studied under Bergler at the Academy of Prague, and later in Munich and (after 1833) in Rome. He became a naturalized citizen...
POLLAK, LUDWIG – Austrian archeologist; born in Prague Sept. 14, 1868 (Ph.D. Vienna, 1893). In 1893 he was sent for a year by the Austrian government to Italy and Greece; and since that time he has lived in Rome. Besides shorter journeys in 1900...
POLLAK, MORIZ, RITTER VON BORKENAU – Austrian financier; born at Vienna Dec. 24, 1827; died there Aug. 20, 1904. After leaving the gymnasium of his native city, at the age of twenty-two, he took charge of his father's wholesale leather business, and soon succeeded...
POLLITZER, ADOLPH – Violinist; born at Budapest July 23, 1832; died in London Nov. 14, 1900. In 1842 he left Budapest for Vienna, where he studied the violin under Böhm; and in his fourteenth year he took the first prize at the Vienna...
POLLONAIS, AMÉLIE – French philanthropist; born at Marseilles in 1835; died at Cap Ferrat July 24, 1898; daughter of Joseph Jonas Cohen, and wife of Désiré Pollonais. In 1868 she published her "Rêveries Maternelles," in which she developed an...
POLLONAIS, GASTON – French journalist; born at Paris May 31, 1865; son of Désiré Pollonais, mayor of Villefranche, and of Amélie Pollonais. About 1890 he began journalistic work as the local correspondent of the "Indépendance Belge," and...
POLNA AFFAIR – An accusation of ritual murder in Polna resulting from the murder of Agnes Hruza March 29, 1899. Polna, a city in the district of Deutschbrod, Bohemia, with a population of 5,000, including a small Jewish settlement, was shocked...