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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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RESCISSION – See Judgement.
RESH – Twentieth letter of the Hebrew alphabet, perhaps so called because the shape of the letter in the Phenician alphabet (see Alphabet) resembles the form of a head (Hebr. "rosh"; Aramaic, "resh"). In pronunciation it is a palatal...
RESH GALUTA – See Exilarch.
RESH KALLAH – The highest officer, except the president, in the academies of Sura and Pumbedita. In each of the two schools there were seven "reshe kallah," who sat in the first row (called "daraḳamma"), facing the gaon. According to the...
RESH LAḲISH – See Simeon ben Laḳish.
RESIDENCE – See Domicil.
RESPONSA – See She'elot u-Teshubot.
RESPONSES – The congregational answers to the utterances of the officiant. These were originally what the responses to the benedictions of those private individuals who are called to the reading of the Law still remain—mere loud acclaims....
RESPONSES TO BENEDICTIONS – Any portion of the liturgy which begins with the words "Blessed be Thou, O Lord" ("Baruk attah Adonai"), or which ends with an abstract of itself introduced by these words, or which both begins and ends thus, is known as a...
RESTRAINT OF PERSONS – See Duress.
RESTRAINTS ON ALIENATION – Restraints on the power to sell or encumber land are known to many systems of jurisprudence. The institution of the year of jubilee (see Sabbatical Year), as set forth in Lev. xxv. 8-28, is the most rigid restraint upon the free...
RESURRECTION – Biblical Data: Like all ancient peoples, the early Hebrews believed that the dead go down into the underworld and live there a colorless existence (comp. Isa. xiv. 15-19; Ezek. xxxii. 21-30). Only an occasional person, and he an...
RETALIATION – In the early period of all systems of law the redress of wrongs takes precedence over the enforcement of contract rights, and a rough sense of justice demands the infliction of the same loss and pain on the aggressor as he has...
RETHY, MORIZ – Hungarian mathematician; born at Nagy-Körös Nov. 3, 1846; educated at Budapest and Vienna, and at the universities of Göttingen and Heidelberg. He was professor of mathematics and theoretic physics at the University of...
REUBEN – Biblical Data: Eldest son of Jacob (Gen. xlvi. 8, xlix. 9) by Leah (ib. xxix. 32), to whom he once carried mandrakes which he had found in a field during the wheat harvest (ib. xxx. 14). He wronged his father by his conduct with...
REUBEN, TRIBE OF – Tribe of Israel, descended from Reuben, Jacob's first-born son, through Reuben's four sons, Hanoch, Phallu or Pallu, Hezron, and Carmi (Gen. xlvi. 9 and elsewhere), fathers of the four clans of the tribe. At the time of the...
REUBEN DAVID TEBELE BEN EZEKIEL – Polish Talmudist and printer of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. His name is generally followed by the word ("Troppau"?). In 1608 he edited at Lublin the "Yen ha-Reḳaḥ" of Eleazar of Worms, to which he added notes of his...
REUBEN BEN ḤAYYIM – Provençal Talmudist; flourished about the middle of the thirteenth century; brother of the liturgical poet Abraham benḤayyim. Reuben, who lived at Narbonne, was a pupil of Isaac ha-Kohen of that city, and teacher of Menahem...
REUBEN BEN HOSHKE – See Hoshke.
REUBEN HA-SEFARDI – Reputed author of "Kelimmat ha-Goyim," a work which attacks Christianity, probably written by Profiat Duran (Efodi) in 1349. The assumption is that the "Kelimmat ha-Goyim" is the same as the "Sefer ha-Kelimmah" mentioned by...
REUBEN BEN STROBILUS – Jew of the second century C.E.; eminent both as a scholar and for the part he took in the affairs of his time. From references to the religious persecutions which he endeavored to terminate it would appear that he became...
REUBENI, DAVID – Arab adventurer; born about 1490 in central Arabia, in Khaibar, as he himself stated; died in Llerena, Spain, after 1535. He left Khaibar Dec. 8, 1522, and went to Nubia in Egypt, where he claimed to be a descendant of Mohammed,...
REUCHLIN, JOHANN VON – German humanist; born Feb. 22, 1455, at Pforzheim; died June 30, 1522, at Liebenzell, near Hirschau, Württemberg. He studied at the universities of Freiburg, Paris, and Basel (1475-78). After having served the Duke of...
REUEL – See Jethro.
REUSS, EDUARD WILHELM – Protestant theologian; born in Strasburg July 18, 1804; died there April 15, 1891. He studied Oriental languages with Gesenius at Halle, and with Silvestre de Sacy at Paris; and became professor at his native city in 1834. He...