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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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I – See Yod.
IBIS – See Heron.
IBN – Arabic word (in Hebrew ) meaning "son," and having the shortened form "ben" or "bin" ( ) when standing between the proper name of the father and that of the son, provided both names form part either of the subject or of the...
IBN ABUN, SAMUEL BEN JUDAH – See Samuel ibn Abun ben Judah.
IBN ALFANGE – Spanish author; flourished in the eleventh century. Nothing is known of his life except that he embraced Christianity in 1094 and filled the position of "official" under the famous hero Cid Campeador (Rodrigo, or Ruy Diaz de...
IBN BAL'AM, ABU ZAKARYA YAḤYA (R. JUDAH) – Hebrew grammarian of Toledo, Spain, about 1070-90. In the introduction to his "Moznayim" Abraham ibn Ezra mentions Ibn Bal'am among the early masters of Hebrew grammar, and Moses ibn Ezra, in his "Kitab al-Muḥaḍarah," gives the...
IBN BARUN, ABU IBRAHIM ISḤAḲ – Spanish grammarian; lived in the eleventh and twelfth centuries, probably at Barcelona. He was a pupil of the grammarian Levi ibn Tabban of Saragossa (author of the "Mafteaḥ"), and a contemporary of Judah ha-Levi and Moses ibn...
IBN BILIA, DAVID BEN YOM-ṬOB – Portuguese philosopher; lived in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. Steinschneider believes him to have been the father of the astronomer Jacob Poel. Ibn Bilia was the author of many works, the greater part of which, no...
IBN DANAN, SAADIA BEN MAIMUN BEN MOSES – Lexicographer, philosopher, and poet; flourished at Granada in the second half of the fifteenth century. He exercised the function of dayyan at Granada and enjoyed a great reputation as Talmudist. When the Jews were banished...
IBN DAUD HA-LEVI – See Abraham ibn Daud.
IBN EZRA, ABRAHAM BEN MEÏR (ABEN EZRA) – First Period: to 1140. Scholar and writer; born 1092-1093; died Jan. 28 (according to Rosin, Reime und Gedichte, p. 82, n. 6, 1167 (see his application of Gen.xii. 4 to himself). His father's name was Meïr and his family was...
IBN EZRA, ISAAC (ABU SA'D) – Spanish poet of the twelfth century; son of Abraham ibn Ezra. He won fame as a poet at an early age, probably while still in his Spanish home. Al-Ḥarizi ("Taḥkemoni," iii.) says of him: "Like his father, Isaac also drew from the...
IBN EZRA, JOSEPH BEN ISAAC – Oriental rabbi of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries; descendant of the Ibn Ezra family of Spain. Brought up in Salonica, he studied under the direction of Samuel di Modena, and became head of the Talmudic school there;...
IBN EZRA, JUDAH – Son of Joseph ibn Ezra of Granada; Spanish state official of the twelfth century. He was raised by Alfonso VII. of Castileto the position of commander of the frontier fort of Calatrava, to the dignity of "nasi" (prince), and, a...
IBN EZRA, MOSES BEN JACOB HA-SALLAḤ (ABU HARUN MUSA) – Spanish philosopher, linguist, and poet; born at Granada about 1070; (died after 1138; relative of Abraham ibn Ezra and pupil of Isaacibn Ghayyat. The surname "ha-Sallaḥ" is generally believed to have been given him on account...
IBN EZRA, SOLOMON BEN MOSES – Rabbi of Venice; flourished in the second half of the seventeenth century. He was a disciple of Joseph Escapa and wrote a preface to, and edited the second part of, the latter's "Rosh Yosef" (Smyrna, 1659). He also edited:...
IBN GABIROL, SOLOMON BEN JUDAH (ABU AYYUB SULAIMAN IBN YAḤYA IBN JABIRUL) – Spanish poet, philosopher, and moralist; born in Malaga about 1021; died about 1058 in Valencia. He is called by Grätz "the Jewish Plato," and by Steinschneider "the most original philosophical writer among the Jews and Arabs."...
IBN GHAYYAT, ISAAC BEN JUDAH – Spanish rabbi, Biblical commentator, philosopher, and liturgical poet; born at Lucena in 1038 (Graetz cites 1030); died at Cordova in 1089; buried at Lucena. According to some authorities he was the teacher of Isaac Alfasi;...
IBN GHAYYAT, JUDAH BEN ISAAC – Spanish Talmudist and Hebrew poet of the twelfth century. He was the author of a Hebrew translation, from the Arabic, of a casuistic dissertation of Isaac Alfasi on a passage of Shebu'ot. As a poet Judah ibn Ghayyat was held in...
IBN ḤAYYIM, AARON – See Ḥayyim, Aaron ibn.
IBN ḤAYYIM, AARON B. ABRAHAM – See Aaron (ben Abraham ben Samuel) ibn Ḥayyim.
IBN HUACAR – See Ibn WaḲar.
IBN ḤUSAIN (ABU SULAIMAN) DAUD – Karaite liturgical poet; flourished in the first half of the tenth century. He compiled a prayer-book for the Karaites, entitled "Tefillat Bene Miḳra," in which he inserted many poems and prayers composed by himself. The prayers...
IBN JANAḤ, ABU AL-WALID MERWAN – Greatest Hebrew philologist of the Middle Ages; born at Cordova between 985 and 990; died at Saragossa in the first half of the eleventh century. He studied at Lucena, Isaac ibn Saul and Isaac ibn Gikatilla being his principal...
IBN JAU, JACOB – Silk-manufacturer at Cordova, occupying a high position at the court of the calif Hisham; died about 1000. Amador de los Rios calls him "Ibn Gan." Jacob and his brother Joseph, finding in the court of the palace a large sum of...